CJ-VOLUME 05 ISSUE 06 NOVEMBER 2015


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Volume 5 Issue 6, November 2015 

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

86-126

Publication History


Original Articles

Study on Increasing Efficiency of Phytoremediation in Cadmium and Nickel Contaminated Soil

Parisa Ziaratiand Mahtab Alimardan

Pages 86-92

Anaerobic Digester and Algal Pond Coupling using Agricultural Resi-dues: Evaluating Productions, Pond Sizing and Nutrient Requirem-ent

Raphael O. Idewele, Othuke D. Iduh, Evuensiri O. Ohimor, Samuel E. Ogbeide

Pages 93-100

Preliminary Investigation on the Production of Volatiles in Tsire dur-ing Storage as Affected by Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus LIV01

Olusegun A. Olaoye and Iniobong G. Lawrence

Pages 101-107

Electrical Analysis of Bis (2-Amino-4-Methylpyridinium) Tetrachlo-ridozincate Compound Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition at Ambi-ent Temperature and Pressure Conditions

Cliff Orori Mosiori and John Maera

Pages 108-114

Oil Viscosities Estimation for Some Selected Crude Oils (A Case Study of Libyan Crude)

Khulud Rahuma and Elmahboub Edreder

Pages 115-117

Synthesis and Characterisation with Antimicrobial Studies on Mixed Ligand Co(II) Ion Complexes

Mohammad Kudrat-E-Zahan, Abdul Kader, M.M. Haque and M.S. Islam

Pages 118-122

Stability of Mesoionic Pyrimidinium Betaines in Aqueous Media

Fatiha Malki, Abdelkader Touati and Saad Moulay

Pages 123-126


Title

Study on Increasing Efficiency of Phytoremediation in Cad-mium and Nickel Contaminated Soil

Abstract

One of the major involvements of healthy soils in the environment is heavy metals which can be accumulated in vegetables and crops gr-own on due to the probability of food contamination through the soil-root interface. A few studies proved that some plants in accom-pany with each other can boost the potential of transition factor of heavy metals. Composite soil samples were collected from 25 sites from 10 recognized rice paddy farmlands and crop farmlands in the Mazandaran province, North of Iran. The soil was put into 50 sites in a way that sorghum and sunflower were grown individually and in the same conditions. Measured the Physical and chemical proper-ties and concentrations of heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium and Nick-el) in soils before and after planting sunflower and sorghum. Meas-urement was also after the growth period (in every 10 days) up to 60 days. Translocation factor was determined by dividing metal co-ncentration at shoot by its concentration at root. The results of this research concluded that sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and sorg-hum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in the contaminated soil had suitability for phytoremediation by phytoextraction method and transmitting more lead and nickel in pH <7 after 20-60 days of the growth of pla-nts. There was a positive correlation between the heavy metal conc-entrations in the leaves and root of plants and the studied soils.

Keywords

Phytoremediation, Heavy Metal, Contaminated Soil, Sunflower, Sorghum

Title

Anaerobic Digester and Algal Pond Coupling using Agricult-ural Residues: Evaluating Productions, Pond Sizing and Nutrient Requirement

Abstract

This investigation examines application of agricultural residues in making biogas using anaerobic digester and algal pond coupling. Although prior works on integration exist for algal in wastewater treatment, we went on to assess theoretically coupling for energy production, pond sizing and nutrient requirement using 1 tonne/day flow rate of waste. Two systems were proposed: (i) use of waste str-eam from the anaerobic digester to grow algal biomass and (ii) to recycle the produced algal biomass to the digester. The study show-ed that applying first configuration gives 515.2 m3 of biogas with 257.6 (50%) biomethane having 9,273.64 MJ of energy. Using CO2 waste with commercial nutrient supply to the pond at the appropri-ate proportion, 443.75 kg algal biomass was produced. Algal pond of depth 0.4 m used was estimated to have capacity of 907 m3. For the second, co-digestion generates 22.4% increases volume of biog-as, leading to 11,913.34 MJ energy generation (23.9% raise). Waste provided half of the nitrogen for algal cultivation. Piecing both configurations together gives a contin-uous system that, as long as 1 tonne/day feed supply is available, there will be increase in produc-tion and reduction in nutrient demand. Approximately 257.65x109 m3 (9,275.27x109 MJ energy) of biomethane by volumes can be generated annually from these agricultural residues globally.  

Keywords

Anaerobic Digestion, Algal Production, Pond Sizing, Nutrient, Biogas, Agricultural Residues

Title

Preliminary Investigation on the Production of Volatiles in Tsire during Storage as Affected by Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus LIV01

Abstract

This study reports a preliminary investigation on the effect of Pedio-coccus pentosaceus LIV01 on volatile compounds asso-ciated with a Nigerian Stick meat i.e. Tsire. Inoculation of the stick meat with P. pentosaceus LIV01 was done at 6 log cfu/g and stored for four days during which the associated volatiles were analysed using solid phase mass extraction gas chrom-atography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS). Uninoculated samples served as control. SPME-GCMS analysis revealed the presence of sixty volatile compounds belonging to different classes, including ketones (15), acids (5), alco-hols (10), nitrogenous compounds (7), aromatic/cyclic hydrocarbo-ns (7) and alkanes/alkenes (7). Nine (9) compounds were also ident-ified which belonged to neither of the classes. Mean peak areas (MPAs; x 104) were higher for uninoculated control sample (UCS) than those inoculated with P. pentosaceus LIV01 in most of the vola-tile compounds known to be associated with spoilage and significant differences (p<0.05) were recorded. Values of 5049 and 2595 were obtained for acetone in UCS and inoculated samples on day 4 of storage respectively. It was concluded that that inoculation with P. pentosaceus LIV01 had significant effect on generation volatiles in Tsire and may contribute to extension of the product’s shelf life.

Keywords

Pediococcus Pentosaceus, Volatile Compounds, Tsire, Inoculation, SPME-GCMS

Title

Electrical Analysis of Bis (2-Amino-4-Methylpyridinium) Tetrachloridozincate Compound Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition at Ambient Temperature and Pressure Conditi-ons

Abstract

In this paper, a study was carried out and we now report the meas-urement of impedance spectroscopy for the bis(2-amino-4-methylp-yridinium) tetrachloridozincate (II) compound in the frequency range 209 Hz-5 MHz with the temperature ranging from 308 up to 368 K. The results are represented in impedance plots which have shown semicircle arcs at different temperatures and an electrical equivalent circuit has been proposed to explain the impedance results. Detailed analysis of the impedance spectrum suggests that the electrical properties of the material are strongly temperature dependent. The freque-ncy-dependent conductivity data were fitted in the Jonscher's law: σac(ω) = σdc + Aωn. The conductivity follows the Arrhenius relation. Thus the conduction in the material is pro-bably due to a hopping or a small polar on tunnelling process. It was concluded that the temperature dependence of conductivity was analyzed using the Arrhenius approach. Finally the AC conductivity of [C6H9N2]2ZnCl4 material was studied as a function of temperat-ure (308-368 K) and frequency ranges (209 Hz to 5 MHz), respecti-vely. The AC conductivity has shown a variation with frequency and was found to obey Jonscher’s law: σac = σdc + Aωn at different tem-peratures. The temperature dependence of the Jonscher’s exponent has revealed that the conduction inside the studied material is insu-red by the Non-overlapping Small Polaron Tunnelling (NSPT) model.

Keywords

Impedance Spectroscopy, Equivalent Circuit, Electrical Properties, Conductivity

Title

Oil Viscosities Estimation for Some Selected Crude Oils (A Case Study of Libyan Crude)

Abstract

In this work, six crude samples have been used to determine viscos-ity of dead and saturated oils applying a number of published empi-rical correlations. Data was collected from Libyan Petroleum Instit-ute (NOC affiliate) database. Correlations used are Beggs-Robinson, Labedi and Petrosky and Farshad to investigate the suitability of Li-byan crude viscosity for dead oil. Investigation showed clearly that Beggs-Robinson correlation is very suitable for estimation due to the indication of very small AAD% (Average Absolute Deviation). It gives the AAD% about 9.58. Chew-Connally, Beggs-Robinson, and Labedi correlations have been used to predict saturated oil viscosity. Results concluded that Beggs-Robinson model gives the lowest valu-es of AAD% (18.5%) compared with the other models.

Keywords

Oil Viscosities, Crude Oils, Libyan Crude

Title

Synthesis and Characterisation with Antimicrobial Studies on Mixed Ligand Co(II) Ion Complexes

Abstract

Four new mixed ligand complexes of Co(II) have been prepared. De-protonated glutamic acid as was used as primary ligand and heter-ocyclic amines were used as secondary ligands. The complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, conductivity meas-urements, magnetic measurements, infrared spectral and 1H NMR studies. The IR spectral data indicated the ligand coordinate to the metal through O and N atoms. The electronic spectral data and ma-gnetic moment are in good agreement with the octahedral structure of Co(II) complexes. The 1H-NMR spectra indicated presence of thr-ee pyridine and one glutamic acid molecule in coordination with the Co(II) metal ion. The complexes showed strong to mode-rate activi-ty against both the gram positive and gram negative bacteria indic-ating the higher zone of inhibition.

Keywords

Transition metal Co(II) Complexes, Glutamic Acid, Mixed Ligand, Antimicrobial Studies

Title

Stability of Mesoionic Pyrimidinium Betaines in Aqueous Media

Abstract

Monocyclic, bicyclic and fatty chain pyrimidinium betaines were sy-nthesised by condensation of 2-aminopyridine or N, N’-disubstituted amidines with substituted malonic esters, yielding mesoionic struct-ures. These structures were confirmed by UV, IR, NMR and MS an-alyses. The effect of pH on the stability of these compounds via UV-visible spectroscopy was investigated. The results showed that the pH did not affect their structures and the obtained betaines were st-rongly stabilised by π-electron and charge delocalisation all over the pH range. This stability is mainly due to the charge distribution within the zwitterionic structure

Keywords

Pyrimidinium Betaines, Mesoionic Compounds, Stability, UV-Visible Spectra