CJ-VOLUME 06 ISSUE 02 MARCH 2016


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Volume 6 Issue 2, March 2016

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

32-97

Publication History


Original Articles

Lignocellulosic Waste of Rice Milling Industry as a New Biosorbent for Caesium(I) Extraction from Aqueous Media

Shagufta Zafar, Nasir Khalid and M. Latif Mirza

Pages 32-40


Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potent of 2-(5-bromo-2-thienyl)-3-(Substituted Phenyl) bicyclo[2.2.1] Heptane-5-ene-2-ylmethanone Derivatives

Ganesamoorthy Thirunarayanan

Pages 41-48


Synthesis of Oxo Benzotriazino Acetic, Benzimidizolyl Hydrazides and Some of Their Hydrazones

Mohammad S. Al-Ajely and Aymin N. Yaseen

Pages 49-54


Catalytic Oxidation of 2-Mercaptoethanol by a Water-Soluble Porhp-hyrazinatocobalt (II) Complex

Hüseyin Karaca, Murat Teker and Ahmet Gül

Pages 55-58


Anti-inflammatory and Acute Toxicity Study of Organotin(IV) Comp-lexes: A Review

Humaira Iqbal, Saqib Ali and Saira Shahzadi

Pages 59-73


Effect of Plectranthus amboinicus Extracts on Rhizoctonia solani in Paddy- A Case Study

Hanumanth Kumar Gurijala, Thanusree Mallakuntla, Esthar lebonah Dulla and Pramoda Kumari Jasti

Pages 74-79


Design, Synthesis and Characterisation of Some New Biologically Po-tent Pyrazolines, Pyrimidines and Pyrimidinethiones Derived from 1,3,5-Triazine Chalcones

Anjani Solankee, Riki Tailor and Kishor Kapadia

Pages 80-92


Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Toxicity of Node Weed (Synedr-ella nodiflora) Extracts

Patricia A. Onocha, Ganiyat K. Oloyede and Enobong U. Johnny

Pages 93-97


Title

Lignocellulosic Waste of Rice Milling Industry as a New Bi-osorbent for Caesium(I) Extraction from Aqueous Media

Abstract

This study assessed the applicability of rice husk (RH) an agro was-te for the removal (as biosorbent) of Cs(I) from aqueous media. The eff-ect of different physico-chemical parameters such as pH, acid conce-ntration, weight of adsorbent, contact time, initial metal ion concentration and temperature, on the removal of Cs(I) were invest-igated. The biosorption phenomenon was monitored by radio-tracer techni-que and was confirmed by FTIR, SEM and EDX studi-es. Maximum adsorption was observed using 0.3 g of adsorbent for 4.0 cm3 of 4.73 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Cs+ solution in fifteen minutes equilibr-ation time. Adsorption followed pseudo 2nd order. The applicabi-lity of experimental data was checked by linear and nonlinear forms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Adso-rption capacity of Cs(I) for RH  was found to be 1.94×10-5 molg-1. Thermodynamic parameters viz ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were computed through Van’t Hoff plot. The observed negative values of ΔG indicat-ed the spontaneous and favourable process. The positive value of ΔH confirmed the endothermic nature of process whereas the ∆S values suggested incr-ease in the randomness at solid - liquid interf-ace during adsorption process. Effect of diverse ions were checked and discussed. The system was applied to spiked tap water with Cs(I) ions and 94.44 % of it was removed which showed that RH is a good adsorbent for the removal of caesium ions from aqueous media.

Keywords

Biosorption, Adsorption Isotherm, Kinetics, Caesium, Rice Milling Waste, Thermod-ynamics


Title

Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potent of 2-(5-bromo-2-thie-nyl)-3-(Substituted Phenyl) bicyclo[2.2.1] Heptane-5-ene-2-ylmethanone Derivatives

Abstract

A series containing ten novel (5-bromo-2-thienyl)-3-(substituted ph-enyl)bicyclo [2.2.1] hept-5-ene-2-yl) methanones have been synth-esized by an aqueous phase fly-ash catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and 5-bromo-2-thienyl chal-cones under cooling condition. The yields of the methanones are more than 60%. The synthesized 5-bromo-2-thienyl bicyclo methan-ones were characterised by their physical constants, infrared, NMR and mass spectral data. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activit-ies of the synthesized methanones were studied using a variety of bacterial and fu-ngal strains and DPPH radical scavenging metho-ds. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of synthesized metha-nones have been expressed based on the diameter of mm of zone of inhibition of compounds against their respective antibacterial and antifungal strains. The halo-, methyl- and nitro- substituted metha-nones showed most active against antibacterial strains with more than 24 mm of zone of inhibition. Methanones containing bromo-, methoxy-, nitro- and 2, 4-dimethoxy- substit-uents showed most ac-tive against antifungal stains with more than 20 mm of zone of inhibition. The ketones containing hydroxy- and methoxy- substitu-ents showed significant antioxidant activity.

Keywords

5-Bromo-2-thienyl bicyclo [2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-yl-methanones, Diels-Alder Reaction, Antimicrobial Activities,  Antioxidant Activity


Title

Synthesis of Oxo Benzotriazino Acetic, Benzimidizolyl Hyd-razides and Some of Their Hydrazones

Abstract

In view of their high reactivity, hydrazides are important starting materials and intermediates in synthesis of certain amines, aldehy-des, and heterocyclic compounds that are otherwise difficult to pre-pare. Many hydrazides, and in particular variously modified arom-atic carboxylic acid hydrazides, have been tested for physiological effects since isonicotinic hydrazide was found to be tuberculostic. So in this study hydrazides of oxo benzotriazine and benzimidazole (4)-(13) were syn-thesised from their corresponding esters (3)-(12). Th-ose two types of hydrazide compounds were allowed to react with some substituted Benz aldehydes. The result of this reaction revealed into the formati-on of new series of hydrazone compounds (5-12)-(14-18) respectively. The structure of the studied compounds were confirmed using IR,1H NMR,13C NMR, Mass measurements. These compounds were discussed according to the well supported spectr-al data.

Keywords

Benzotriazino, Benzimidzolyl, Hydrazides, Hydrazones


Title

Catalytic Oxidation of 2-Mercaptoethanol by a Water-Solu-ble Porhphyrazinatocobalt (II) Complex

Abstract

The catalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol by water-soluble por-phyrazinatocobalt(II) complex was achieved in the presence of diss-olved oxygen. A newly synthesised water soluble metallo-porphyra-zine carrying eight 2-trimethylammonium-ethylthio groups on peri-pheral positions has been studied as a homogeneous catalyst. In this study, the oxidation rate of 2-mercaptoethanol has been investigat-ed in related to pH, temperature and concentrations of catalyst and 2-mercaptoethanol. The optimum conditions are obtained from the experimental results as pH=11, temperature 25 oC and catalyst con-centration 4.29x10-7 M. The kinetic studies at optimum conditions have shown as this reaction is suitable for enzyme kinetics. The values of Rmax (maximum rate) and Michaelis-Menten constant and turnover number are calculated as 1.29x10-5 and 60 respectively.

Keywords

Porphyrazines, 2-Mercaptoethanol, Catalytic Oxidation, Thiol Oxidation, Merox Process


Title

Anti-inflammatory and Acute Toxicity Study of Organot-in(IV) Complexes: A Review

Abstract

This review focuses on the anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity stu-dy of organotin complexes. The amazing anti-inflamma-tory and acute toxicity study of organotin complexes of certain peptides, dip-eptides, amino acids, salicylaldehyde, adenine, guanine, glutarate, phthalate, phosphate, guanosine, 5′-guanosine monophosphate, umbelliferone, phenanthroline, L-glutamine and hydroxylcarboxyl-ic acids are discussed. It is found that there is an impressive range of structural diversity for organotin moiety. According to structure activity-relationship, biologically active compounds should have av-ailable coordination positions at tin and relatively stable ligand-Sn, Sn-N, Sn-S, Sn-O bond with low hydrolytic decomposition. The ligand environment and organic groups, attached to the tin, influen-ce the anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity of organotin complexes. The results of complexes revealed that triphenyltin(IV) complexes of umbelliferone and phenanthroline, monoanion triglycine and diphe-nyltin(IV) complexes of guanine exhibited potent anti-inflammato-ry activity comparable to that of phe-nylbutazone with high safety margin  (ALD50 > 400-2000 mgKg-1).

Keywords

Organotin(IV), Anti-inflammatory, Acute Toxicity, Structural Diversity


Title

Effect of Plectranthus amboinicus Extracts on Rhizoctonia solani in Paddy- A Case Study

Abstract

The potential of leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus to induce systemic resistance in Rice plants against sheath blight disease was studied. Rice seeds were treated with P. amboinicus leaf extracts. 20 days old grown plant leaf sheaths were inoculated with the fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani  and the assay of the defence related enzymes Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Ascorbate peroxidase (APO), Catalase (CAT), Tyrosinase (TYR), Phenylalanineammonialyase (PAL) was done at different intervals (0, 24, 48, 78 and 96) in comp-arison with control. The Ethanolic leaf extract showed 1-2 fold incr-ease in enzyme activity and whereas aqueous leaf extract showed 2-4 fold increase in enzyme activity. These results suggests that leaf extracts of P. amboinicus triggers plant-defence mechanism against pathog-en-attack in rice plants proving its ability to induce systemic resista-nce in Rice against sheath blight disease.

Keywords

Plectranthus amboinicus, Rhizoctonia solani, Polyphenol Oxidase, Ascorbate Perox-idase, Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase


Title

Design, Synthesis and Characterisation of Some New Biolo-gically Potent Pyrazolines, Pyrimidines and Pyrimidinethi-ones Derived from 1,3,5-Triazine Chalcones

Abstract

Infectious microbial disease remains a serious problem worldwide, because microbes have resisted prophylaxis or therapy longer than any other form of life. In present time it is necessary to search for new biological entities to fight against recent drug resistant microb-ial strains Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 443 and Salmonella paratyphi-B MTCC 733. Herein we report combinatorial libraries of substituted pyrazo-lines (6a-f), pyrimidines (7a-f) and pyrimidinethiones (8a-f) bea-ring 1,3,5-triazine fragment were synthesised via the reaction of ch-alcones (5a-f) with the hydrazine hydrate, guanidine nitrate and thiourea respectively and screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of pathogenic strains. All these newly synth-esised compounds were fully characterised on the basis of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. Most of the compounds showed appreciable antibacterial activity against the tested strains. Among the synthesised compounds 5e, 6a, 6e and 8c emerged as most proficient members of the series and may be used as the lead compound in a future study. Consequently, synthes-ised derivatives were found to be worthy of further investigation.

Keywords

Claisen-Schmidt Condensation, 1,3,5-Triazine, Chalcones, Pyrazolines, Pyrimidines, Pyrimidinethiones, Antibacterial Activity


Title

Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Toxicity of Node Weed (Synedrella nodiflora) Extracts

Abstract

Plants possess bioactive substances that can be utilised to serve hea-lth needs as emerging health problems continue to rampage our en-vironment. Node weed Synedrella nodiflora used traditionally in Nigeria for treating various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatism, dropsy, swellings, oedema, gout and leprosy is one of such plant. Methanol, n-hexane, ethylacetate and butanol extracts of this plant were screened for antioxidant activity and the methanol extract only for inherent toxicity. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extrac-ts to scavenge 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and by ferric thiocyanate method exhibited significant antioxidant activ-ities when compared with known antioxidant standards like butyla-ted hydroxylanisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and a-tocopherol. All the extracts scavenge DPPH more effectively than a-tocopherol at all concentrations i.e. 2.0-0.0625 mg/ml with ethylacetate fraction ha-ving the highest % inhibition (82.43 %). In the ferric thiocyanate method, all the extracts scavenged superoxide radical more effectiv-ely than the standards at 0.00625-0.8 mg/ml with hexane extract having the highest % inhibition (91.61%). The antioxidant properties of plants have been linked to their therapeutic and protective effects against diseases such as inflammation, arthritis, rheumatism, Park-inson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, cardiovascular disorde-rs, bacterial and viral infections. LC50 value of 0.001 mg/ml obtai-ned for the methanol extract indicating high toxicity was part of the evidence that supported the traditional use of S. nodiflora.

Keywords

Superoxide, Toxicity, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl Radical, Ferric Thiocyanate, Synedrella nodiflora