RJB-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 01 JANUARY 2012


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Research Journal of Biology (RJB)                   ISSN 2049-1727
Volume 02 No.01 January 2012 (Pages 1-36)

1

In-Vitro Anti-Bacterial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants Using Agar Well Diffusion Method

2

Monthly Changes in Condition, Hepatosomatic Index and Bioavailability in Frogs (Rana ridibunda

3

Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly (MCPH): A Review of ASPM Gene

4

A Preliminary Survey of Flora and Vegetation of Sand Dune Belt in the Southern Caspian Coasts, N. Iran

5

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factors of Indian Major Carps (C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala) in Mahi Bajaj Sagar, India




Title

In-Vitro Anti-Bacterial Activities of Three Medicinal Plants Using Agar Well Diffusion Method

Author(s)

Saba Irshad, Maryum Mahmood and Farzana Perveen


Abstract

Medicinal plants play a vital role for health care. The constituents of medicinal plants control the hyperglycemia as well as its secondary complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of medicinal plants by agar well diffusion assay. Three medicinal plants (Saussurea lappa, Ricinus communis and Acacia nilotica) were used against four bacterial strains (Lactobacillus subtilis, Bacillus thureogenesis, Corney bacterium and Escherichia coli). These three medicinal plants were macerated into three forms (Ethanol, Chloroform and Simple macerated extracts). Then, with the help of agar diffusion assay the antibacterial activity of these medicinal plants were measured. The zones of inhibition were measured with the help of scale and they were represented by graphs and tables. These medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against four available bacterial strains. The present study suggests that the ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants contain compounds that can form the basis for the development of a novel broad spectrum antibacterial formulation.

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Keywords

Saussurea lappa, Acacia nilotica, Ricinus communis, Antibacterial Activity, Agar Diffusion Assay


Title

Monthly Changes in Condition, Hepatosomatic Index and Bioavailability in Frogs (Rana ridibunda)

Author(s)

Hassan Taghavi Jelodar and Hasan Fazli


Abstract

Measurements of bioavailability responses in frogs from contaminated sites could provide valuable data for environmental risk assessment. Biomarkers are sensitive to both environmental pollution and confounding factors that are not related to pollution. The specimens were collected on a monthly basis from the Babol-River from July to September 2010 to determine if monthly changes exist in condition, hepatosomatic index (HSI) and frogs. Fulton condition factor (FCF range: 1.513±0.431 – 1.638±0.473), hepatosomatic index (HSI range: 3.901±0.504-5.231±1.206), Bioaccumulation factor (BAF), the highest level of copper was observed. Liver weight was seen to increase from July to August/September, most probably as a result of accumulation of metabolites, especially fat and glycogen. Furthermore, the concentrations of the metals found in the liver of the frog were in the order: Cu>Cr>Cd>Pb>Ni. On the other hand, the concentrations of the metals found in the water were in the order: Cu>Pb>Cd> Ni >Cr.

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Keywords

Fulton Condition Factor, Hepatosomatic Index, Bioaccumulation Factor, Rana ridibunda


Title

Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly (MCPH): A Review of ASPM Gene

Author(s)

Saba Irshad


Abstract

Microcephaly is characterized by reduced skull circumference and closely correlates with reduced brain volume. Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly (MCPH) is a condition in which the principal features are microcephaly and mental retardation. MCPH is a rare neuro-developmental disorder. It is the primary disorder of neurogenic mitosis, which leads to reduced neuron number. Microcephaly is defined as the Head Circumference (HC) that is four standard deviations below the mean (_4SD). In affected individuals, brain weight is markedly reduced and the cerebral cortex is small. Despite this marked reduction in size, no major abnormalities in cortical architecture are present. In true microcephaly, the sloping forehead was a defining feature which is not seen in all cases of MCPH. MCPH is a rare disorder; it seems rarer in whites than in Asian and Arab populations where consanguineous marriages are common. The inheritance pattern is autosomal recessive with one in four recurrence risk for autosomal recessive traits in subsequently born children. To date, seven loci (MCPH1–7) have been mapped and five genes have been identified. These genes include Microcephalin, WDR62, ASPM, CEP152, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ and STIL. ASPM organizes microtubules at the spindle pole during mitosis and at the central spindle during cytokinesis. 

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Keywords

Autosomal Recessive, Primary Microcephaly, MCPH loci, ASPM Gene


Title

A Preliminary Survey of Flora and Vegetation of Sand Dune Belt in the Southern Caspian Coasts, N. Iran

Author(s)

Alireza Naqinezhad


Abstract

The psammophytic plants of south Caspian coasts occur on a relatively narrow coastal belt close to Sea. Many plants are adapted to grow in sandy dunes of these habitats. Most parts of this habitat have been degraded due to intensive human activities. This paper presents a preliminary checklist of all vascular psammophytes growing in this belt. Data are extracted from all field studies conducted in the Caspian coastline during 2000-2009 as well as all data collected up to now by other authors. Three vegetation bands (zones) around the south Caspian coastline were recognized and discussed in the paper. Moreover, 40 species in 36 genera and 18 families were identified along the south Caspian coast. Life form, chorology and ecology of coastal plants are discussed and compared with other areas. Therophytes have the highest proportion among life forms and pluriregional plants are dominant plants in sand dune flora. Moreover, an overall classification of all habitats near to Sea was described and compared with each other. Conservation notes and the threatening issues of these habitats are discussed.

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Keywords

Southern Caspian Sea, Iran, Psammophytes, Flora, Conservation


Title

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factors of Indian Major Carps (C. catla, L. rohita and C. mrigala) in Mahi Bajaj Sagar, India

Author(s)

N.C. Ujjania, M.P.S. Kohli and L.L.Sharma


Abstract

In this paper, length-weight relationships (LWR), condition factor (K) and relative condition factor (Kn) for three commercially important Indian major carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala) from Mahi Bajaj Sagar are described. Mahi Bajaj Sagar-a freshwater reservoir, is situated in Banswara district of Rajasthan. This large sheet of water is an important major water body of the west coast river system of India. LWRs parameters are calculated for the three carp species and found significant. The correlation coefficient ‘r’ was significant and observed to be 0.918, 0.976 and 0.970 in catla, rohu and mrigal, respectively for pooled data. However, these values ranged from 0.664-0.903, 0.741-880 and     0.819-0.967 for catla, rohu and mrigala, respectively in different length groups. In LWR (W=aLb) values of exponent ‘b’ were observed to be 3.275 for catla, 3.376 for rohu and 3.362 for mrigal from pooled data whereas such values varied from 3.160-3.805 for catla, 3.110-4.574 for rohu and 2.498-3.375 for mrigala in different length groups. The values of ‘K’ were 3.083 in catla, 1.695 in rohu and 1.714 in mrigal from pooled data. Moreover, it is fluctuated between 2.788-3.094 in catla, 2.011-2.213 in rohu and 1.523-1.962 in mrigal for different length groups.  The values of relative condition factor (Kn) were observed in range 1.000-0.999 in different length groups and 1.018-0.998 for the pooled data of selected species. These parameters have been found very useful to evaluate the wellbeing of populations, their biology for scientific management of fisheries and stock assessment.

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Keywords

Length-Weight Relationships, Indian Major Carps, catla, rohu, mrigal, Isometric, Allometric Growths