CJ-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 02 MARCH 2012


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Volume 2 Issue 2, March 2012

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages 

38-94

Publication History


Original Articles

Development of New Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Based on Vegetable Oils for Protection from CO2 Corrosion

Hany Mohamed Abd El-Lateef, Leylufer Imran Aliyeva, Vagif Maharram, Abbasov, Teyyub Allahverdi Ismayilov and Xaluda Raufovna Ismayilova

Pages 38-51

Corrosion Protection of Steel Pipelines Against CO2 Corrosion-A Review

Hany Mohamed Abd El-Lateef, Vagif Maharram Abbasov, Leylufer Imran Aliyeva and Teyyub Allahverdi Ismayilov

Pages 52-63

Ceric (IV) a Facile and Eco-Friendly Catalysis in Heterocyclic Synthesis (II): A One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidines through Biginelli Reaction

Zubaidha  Mounir Abbas Ali Mohamed, Naglaa Fawzy Hassan Mahmoud and Ahmed Mohamed Mohamed El-Saghier

Pages 64-68

Trace metals Distribution and Contamination in the Surface Marine Sediments of Roro Bay in Lagos, Nigeria

Abdulrafiu O. MajolagbeOladele Osibanjo, Kafeelah A. Yusuf and Rasak A Olowu

Pages 69-78

Physicochemical Quality Assessment of Groundwater Based on Land Use in Lagos City, Southwe-st, Nigeria

Oladele Osibanjo and Abdulrafiu O. Majolagbe

Pages 79-86

Preparation of Novel Monoesters of Succinic Acid from Succinic Anhydride using p-Toluensulph-onic Acid as a Catalyst

Muhammad Iqbal, Imam Bakhsh Baloch and Musa Kaleem Baloch

Pages 87-94

Title

Development of New Eco-Friendly Corrosion Inhibitors Based on Vegetable Oils for Protection from CO2 Corrosion

Abstract

The corrosion inhibition efficiency of carbon steel, in 1% solution of NaCl saturated with CO2 by the synthesised environmental surfactants was studied using linear polari-sation  studies (LPR bubble test) and weight loss measu-rements at 50 oC. The results showed that, all synthesised inhibitors were good inhibitors and their inhibition efficie-ncies were significantly increased with increasing the concentration of inhibitor. Values of inhibition efficiency calculated from weight loss measurements and linear polarisati-on studies are in good agreement. The increase of inhibitor efficiency with increasing the concentration can be interpreted on the basis of the adsorption amount and the coverage of surfactants molecules, increases with increasing concentration. The surf-ace activity of the synthesised surfactant solutions was deter-mined, using surface and interfacial tension measurements at 25 oC. The Adsorption of inhibitors was found to obey Langmuir isotherm and chemisorption. Thermodynamic adsorption parameters (Kads, ∆G°ads) of studied inhibitors were calculated using the Langmuir adsorption isot-herm. The maximum inhibition efficiencies ranged between 98.25 % and 99.60 % at 100 ppm concentration of inhibitors.

Keywords

Vegetable Oil, Corrosion Inhibition, Carbon Steel, Lpr, Weight Loss Measurements, Surfactants


Title

Corrosion Protection of Steel Pipelines Against CO2 Corrosion-A Review

Abstract

One of the serious problems of oil extracting industry is the corrosion process. The successful application of carbon steels in oil and gas pipelines and production tubular in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) containing environments depends mainly on either the formation of protective corrosion product film or the use of corrosion inhibitors. The mechanism of corrosion of carbon steel in media containing CO2 is complex, and in dependence on the prevailing conditions it may lead to general or local corrosion and corrosion cracking. The inhibition mechanism is attributed to the strong adsorption ability of the selected inhibitors on steel surface, forming a good protective layer, which isolates the surface from the aggressive environment. The current state of research in corrosion protection of steel pipelines against CO2corrosion is surveyed. The review covers CO2 corrosion and its inhibition. The influence of inhibitors molecular structure on corrosion layers in CO2 corrosion is discussed.

Keywords

CO2 Corrosion, Inhibition, Pipelines, Steel Inhibitors, Carbon Dioxide


Title

Ceric (IV) a Facile and Eco-Friendly Catalysis in Heterocyclic Synthesis (II): A One-Pot Synthesis of Pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidines through Biginelli Reaction

Abstract

An efficient one-pot, eco-friendly synthesis of 5-phenyl-5,8-dihydropyrimi-do[4,5-d] pyrimidine-2,4,7(1H,3H,6H)-trione 4a-e and 5-phenyl-7-thioxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro pyri-mido[4,5-d]pyrimidine-2,4-(1H,3H) dione 5ae derivati-ves can easily be prepared thro-ugh a three-components condensation reaction of  barbituric acid, urea (thiourea) and the proper aldehyde in water in the presence of Ceric Ammonium Nitrate (CAN) as cat-alyst. Many advantage for the use of CAN as a catalyst in organic synthesis, such as, a very small amount of this catalyst is enough to complete reactions in most cases, low costs, eco-friendly nature, ease of handling, non-toxicity, high reactivity etc., make CAN as a potent catalyst in the synthetic transformation. In conclusion, we have devel-oped a simple, eco-friendly and efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of pyri-midopyrimidinone derivatives as biologically active compounds via improved Biginelli-type reaction catalysed by CAN. This method does not involve the use of toxic solvents thus; it is an environmentally friendly process.   

Keywords

Pyrimidopyrimidinones, Condensation Reaction, Heterocycles, Biginelli Reaction, Catalysts


Title

Trace Metals Distribution and Contamination in the Surface Marine Sediments of Roro Bay in Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract

This paper presents the investigation of distribution and contamination of Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb in surface marine sediments of Roll on- Roll off (Roro) bay, Lagos, South-West, Nigeria. Sediment samples of about 20 cm deep from twenty (20) locations in the bay were collected; wet digested with aqua regia and analysed for trace metals, employing Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The metal toxicity risk was as-sessed with the applic-ation of two different sediment quality guidelines (SQG) indices i.e. effect range low/effect range medium (ERL/ERM) and threshold effect level/ probable effect level (TEL/PEL).  The order of concentration was Cd < Cu < Pb < Cr < Zn. Correlation was found significant between Cu and Pb at p> 5.0, suggesting similar sources for the metals, while very weak correlations were observed between Cu and Zn, as well as in Pb and Zn. Results showed that metals contamination was mainly due to dockyard activities, atmosphe-ric deposition and industrial effluent discharged. 

Keywords

Heavy Metal, Metal Toxicity Risk, Sediment Quality Guidelines, Terminal Bay, Safety Status, River Ror


Title

Physicochemical Quality Assessment of Groundwater Based on Land Use in Lagos city, Southwest, Nigeria

Abstract

Hydrochemical analyses of fifty-one (51) groundwater samples, covering industrial, coastal, dry land, landfill and residential areas of Lagos were carried out, in an effort to assess their quality. Physico-chemical parameters investigated included Total Dissol-ved Solids (TDS), Alkalinity, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Hardness. Anions such as; Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, PO43- we are also determined, using standard analytic-al methods. Metals such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and Fe+ were also determined, employing Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Buck scientific 210VGP model). The mean value of Iron is above WHO limit of 0.3 mg/L, while pH value observed is outside the allowable range of WHO i.e. 6.8-8.5, for drinking water. The TDS mean values ranged from 50.84 to 444.25 mg/L and 200.93 to 419.24 mg/L for dry and rain seasons respectively. A strong positive correlation was fou-nd between TDS and EC, TDS and Cl- as well as TDS and NO3-. The ground-water under investigation could be classified as fresh moderately hard water.

Keywords

Groundwater, Aquifer, Seasoned Variation, Industrial Areas, Land Fill Areas

Title
Preparation of Novel Monoesters of Succinic Acid from Succinic Anhydride Usi-ng p-Toluensulphonic Acid as a Catalyst
Abstract The industrial and pharmaceutical applications of monoesters of succinic anhydride have always prompted the scientists for exploring new methods for the synthesis of the products without using toxic and expensive chemic-als. However, up to now no significant approach has come forward. The available methods are not only ecologically unfriendly i.e. create heat, evolve toxic gases but also provide low yield. Therefore, a new technique has been proposed in which the opening of ring of succinic anhydride was performed by treating it with aryl alcohols, using p-toluenesulphonic acid as a catalyst and toluene as a solvent. In this way 1-27 monoesters of di-, and trisubstitut-ed aryl alcohols have been synthesised with good yield; howev-er, in case of 2,6-disubstituted alcohols the yield was considerably lower than others and was attributed to steric hindrance. The final products were purified using chromatographic techniques and their structure was confirmed by recording IR, UV, 1D, 2D, (1H- and 13C-) NMR spectra, mass measurements and elemental analysis.
Keywords Succinic Anhydride, Aryl Alcohols, Monoesters of Succinic Acid, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR of Monoesters