RJB-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 02 MARCH 2012


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Research Journal of Biology (RJB)                   ISSN 2049-1727
Volume 02 No.02 March 2012 (Pages 37-78)


1

Assessment of DNA Damage in Obese Individuals

2

Effect of Seasonal Changes on Proximate Composition of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus) and Hake (Merluccius merluccius) were Caught from Saroz

3

Low Cost Tissue Culture Technology in the Regeneration of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam)

4

In Vitro Regeneration and Multiplication of Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus L.)

5

A Histological and Morphometric Study of Monosodium Glutamate Toxic Effect on Testicular Structure and Potentiality of Recovery in Adult Albino Rats



Title

Assessment of DNA Damage in Obese Individuals

Author(s)

Gursatej Gandhi and Gazaljit Kaur


Abstract

Obesity has been reported to be associated with increased oxidative stress which can cause damage to cellular bio-molecules including DNA and hence provoke a malignancy response. Hence, the assessment of DNA damage in obese subjects can assist in therapeutic and management strategies to prevent obesity-related co-morbidities.  In the present study, the alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was carried out in peripheral blood leukocytes of some (n=50) obese and normal weight subjects. Obese individuals (n=35) had a significantly higher Body Mass Index (BMI of males 31.89±0.58 kg/m2 and of females 31.87±0.38 kg/m2) compared to controls (n=15; 23.29±0.40 kg/m2) who were healthy, had normal weight and were matched for age sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle. DNA damage was significantly (p< 0.001) elevated in obese subjects with mean Damage Frequency of 77.77±1.12, Damage Index of 47.34±0.79 and DNA migration of 29.14±0.93µm compared to respective values in controls. DNA damage in obese subjects implies their susceptibility to cancer and precocious ageing and so requires appropriate interventions.

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Keywords

Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis, Comet Assay, BMI


Title

Effect of Seasonal Changes on Proxımate Composıtıon of Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus) and Hake (Merluccius merluccius) were Catched from Saroz

Author(s)

Arınç Tulgar and Nermin Berik


Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of seasonal changes on %water, %protein, %lipid and %ash of commercial fish species in Turkey; red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and hake (Merluccius merluccius) were catched from Saroz Bay via trawl nets. A total of 48 samples were examined for each species and eight samplings were taken twice during each season (January/2007-February/2008). Proximate composition of the red mullet muscle during winter resulted on %water, %protein, %lipid, %ash and %carbonhydrate 76.07; 18.58; 4.00; 1.24 and 0.11 respectively. In spring these values were recorded as 72.17; 19.50; 6.77; 1.31 and 0.25 respectively. The records were 76.43; 16.39; 5.82; 1.06 and 0.30 in summer. and 77.00; 17.52; 3.80; 1.15 and 0.35 in autumn respectively. Proximate composition of the hake muscle during winter resulted on %water, %protein, %lipid, %ash and %carbonhydrate 79.36; 15.70; 2.02; 1.22 and 0.44 respectively. In spring these values were recorded as 82.31; 14.31; 1.87; 1.31 and 0.20 respectively. The records were 85.21; 12.10; 1.25; 1.10 and 0.33 in summer and 85.12; 12.24; 1.32; 1.14 and 0.18 in autumn respectively.

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Keywords

Saroz Bay, Proximate Composition, Striped Mullet, Hake


Title

Low Cost Tissue Culture Technology in the Regeneration of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam)

Author(s)

Kwame Okinyi Ogero, Mburugu Nkanata Gitonga, Maina Mwangi, Michael Mugambi Ngugi and Omwoyo Ombori

 

Abstract

Sweet potato production in Eastern Africa has been declining due to lack of healthy planting materials. Developing countries have not maximised in vitro sweet potato regeneration due to the high costs incurred. The objective of this research was to reduce the cost of sweet potato tissue culture nutrients by using affordable alternative nutrient sources. The conventional sources of Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts were substituted with Easygro® vegetative fertilizer containing both macro and micronutrients. Two grams of the fertilizer were supplemented with 30 g/L of table sugar and 9 g/L of agar. Conventional MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L of table sugar and 3 g/L of gelrite was used as the control. Two farmer-preferred sweet potato varieties, Kemb-36 and Tainurey were initiated on the two media. The mean number of nodes, leaves, roots and plant height were determined and comparisons made between the two media. There was 96.9% reduction in the cost of the nutrients used in media preparation. Significant differences were detected on the number of nodes produced by Kemb-36 on the two media with plantlets cultured on the low cost medium producing four nodes per plantlet while those cultured on the conventional MS medium had an average of five nodes per plantlet. Significant differences were not detected on the number of nodes produced by Tainurey on the two media. The developed low cost medium can be used to boost the production of affordable disease-free sweet potato seedlings. 

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Keywords

Low Cost Medium, Sweet Potato, In Vitro Plant Regeneration


Title

In Vitro Regeneration and Multiplication of Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus L.)

Author(s)

S. Kar, M. Ashrafuzzaman, D. Khanam and Shamsul H. Prodhan


Abstract

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.), known as national fruit of Bangladesh, found between June to August. Propagation of jackfruit plant from seeds is not widely accepted because of high heterozygosis. To maintain the true type quality fruit, tissue culture technique could be used for the propagation of jackfruit throughout the year. Healthy and juvenile shoot tips were used for explanting purpose and cultured in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium complemented with different concentrations (0 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L, 3 mg/L and 4 mg/L) of plant growth hormone i.e. BAP (6-benzyleaminopurine), for the purpose of multiple shoot development. Regeneration of shoots increased comparatively better when MS medium was enriched with 2 mg/L of BAP. With the increase of subculture (up to 10th maximum), frequency of shoot proliferation was enhanced. These shoots were then cultured on half strength of MS medium supplemented with 0 mg/L, 1 mg/L, 2 mg/L, 3 mg/L and 4 mg/L IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) and observed that 2 mg/L IBA containing medium was highest in number of roots/explants, root length and early root induction.

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Keywords

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.), In vitro, Micro-Propagation, Shoot Tip


Title

A Histological and Morphometric Study of Monosodium Glutamate Toxic Effect on Testicular Structure and Potentiality of Recovery in Adult Albino Rats

Author(s)

Nermine S. Nosseir, Mona H. Mohammed Ali and Hala M Ebaid

Abstract

We aimed to study the toxic effect of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) on the morphology and the structure of the rat testis and to see if there is a potential recovery of the adverse effects of MSG. The study was performed on forty-eight young adult Wistar male rats (age 10 weeks). The animals were divided randomly into Control group (C) and Experimental group (E), each containing 24 rats. Each group were subdivided into four subgroups in a way that each subgroup contained six rats. Each rate was of similar age.. The experimental groups received 4 ml/Kg body weight (b.w.) I.P (Intraperitoneal) injection of MSG daily for 14 days. By time of scarification, the right testis was processed for histological evaluation while the left one was processed for sperm and morphometric evaluation. Rats treated with MSG showed morphological and morphometric changes as decrease in testicular weight, decrease in tubular diameter, reduction in germinal epithelium height, decrease in the spermatic count and abnormalities of sperms morphology. There was significant gradual improvement after cessation of treatment with MSG. However, the normal structure of the testis was not regained even after six weeks of cessation of treatment.

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Keywords

 Glutamate, Albino, Toxic Effect, Morphology, Rats