IRJP-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 02 MARCH 2012


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International Research Journal of Pharmaceuticals      ISSN 2048-4143 
Volume 02 No.02 March 2012 (Pages 21-57)     


S.No

Title

1

Determination of Human Insulin in Pharmaceutical Preparation by Zero, First and Second Order Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods

2

Buccal Tablets of Lisinopril by Direct Compression Method for Buccal Drug Delivery

3

Effect of the Combination of Salicylate with Aminoglycosides on Bacterial Adhesion to Urinary Catheters

4

Anti-Ulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa Oleifera (Lam) Leaves against Aspirin and Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats



Title

Determination of Human Insulin in Pharmaceutical Preparation by Zero, First and Second Order Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods

Author(s)

Bilal Yilmaz and Yucel Kadioglu


Abstract

Zero, first and second order derivative spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of insulin. The standard solutions and pharmaceutical sample were prepared in 0.01 M HCl. Absorbences of insulin were measured at 276 nm for the zero order by measuring height of peak from zero, at 264, 277 and 284 nm for the first order and  at 277, 280, 283 and 289 nm for second order derivative spectrophotometric method by measuring peak to peak height. The type of solvent, the degree of deviation and range of wavelength were chosen in order to optimize the conditions. The linearity ranges were found to be 5.0-70 µg mL-1 for the zero, first and second order derivative spectrophotometric methods. The detection and quantitation limits were found to be 2.0 µg mL-1 & 3.0 µg mL-1 for the zero order, 3.0 µg mL-1 & 4.0 µg mL-1 for first and second order derivative spectrophotometric methods, respectively. The developed zero, first and second order derivative spectrophotometric methods in this study are accurate, sensitive, precise, and reproducible and can be directly and easily applied to the pharmaceutical preparation. In addition, the results obtained from three derivative spectrophotometric methods were compared and no significant difference was found statistically.

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Keywords
Insulin, Zero, First, Second, Order Derivative Spectrophotometric Method, Pharmaceutical Preparation

Title

Buccal Tablets of Lisinopril by Direct Compression Method for Buccal Drug Delivery

Author(s)

Prasanth Vasantha Viswanadhan, Anand Padole, Abin Abraham and Sam Thomarayil Mathew


Abstract

Buccal tablets of lisinopril were prepared by direct compression method using different hydrophilic polymers such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sodiumcarboxy methylcellulose and Carbopol. All the prepared formulations showed satisfactory mass uniformity, thickness and favourable drug content. The friability of all the formulation was below 1%, which is an indication of good mechanical resistance of tablets. Among all the formulations, F4 showed maximum swelling index and in vitro release. Drug release mechanism was determined by plotting release data to Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas model. All the formulations are best fitted to Higuchi model and according to this model the drug releases from theses tablets may be controlled by diffusion. The surface pH of all formulations was found to be almost in neutral pH and no mucosal irritation was expected. The accelerated stability studies indicated that, the selected formulation (F4) showed almost same drug content, mass uniformity and residence time. No colour change or no any changes in texture were observed when tablets were tested in simulated saliva solution (pH 6.8).

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Keywords

Buccal Drug Delivery, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas Model, Stability Studies, In Vitro Release


Title

Effect of the Combination of Salicylate with Aminoglycosides on Bacterial Adhesion to Urinary Catheters

Author(s)

Tarek El-Banna, Fatma Ibrahim Sonbol, Ahmed Ahmad Abd El-Aziz, Amal Abo-Kamar and Doaa Waheed Seif-Eldin


Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some aminoglycosides with salicylate on biofilm production and pre-formed mature biofilms on urinary tract catheters. Aminoglycosides inhibited the biofilm production on catheter segments by 51.17-66.66 % and 38.23-52.38 % in the presence of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and ¼ MIC, respectively and disrupted the pre-formed biofilms by 45.78-55.29 % in the presence of MIC and 37.34-47.05 % in presence of ¼ MIC. Salicylate alone inhibited biofilm production on catheter segments of all tested microorganisms by 30.98-68.35 %, and disrupted pre-formed biofilms by 14.45-62.73 %. Gentamicin / Salicylate combination showed the highest significant and dose dependent inhibitory effect on biofilm production up to 79.10 % and disruptive effect on the pre-formed biofilms up to 78.26 %. In conclusion, the combinations of Gentamicin / Salicylate may influence the adhesion of bacteria on abiotic surfaces. It is due to preventing the adherence of bacteria to urinary tract catheters and detaching bacteria that were adhering even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Therefore, we can say that salicylate could be useful as an adjuvant therapeutic agent beside Gentamicin in the treatment of catheter associated urinary tract infections.

Keywords

Bacterial Resistance, Biofilm, Exopolysaccharide, Non-Antibiotics


Title

Anti-Ulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa Oleifera (Lam) Leaves against Aspirin and Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

Author(s)

Vinay Kumar Verma, Nripendra Singh, Puja Saxena and Ritu Singh


Abstract

Study was conducted to test the hypothesis that Moringa oleifera Lam. leave has hepatoprotective as well as antioxidant activity. For this purpose, a study was designed using alcoholic extracts of Moringa oleifera leave produce significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity. The activity was tested in wistar albino rats at dose levels of 125, 250 & 500 mg/kg, orally and compared with ranitidine (50mg/kg) as standard. During the ulcer condition, there was an increase in gastric mucosal SOD and LPO levels. This indicated that the generation of relative oxygen species during stress might be the causative factor for the inactivation of gastric peroxidase. The alcoholic leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. has shown ulcer protective effect because this dose is against pylorus-ligation, ethanol, cold restraint stress, aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The said extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. was found to decrease ulcer and acid pepsin secretion. A change was also seen in SOD, CAT, and LPO levels in rat gastric mucosa due to antioxidant property of alcoholic leaves extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Antioxidant defense mechanism of the extract was probably due to metabolising lipid peroxides and scavenging H2O2.


Keywords

Ethanolic Extract, Moringa oleifera, Aspirin-Induced, Ulcer Protective Activity

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