JE-VOLUME 01 ISSUE 01 MAY 2012


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Volume 1 Issue 1, May 2012

Journal of Environment

ISSN

2049-8373

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

1-32

Publication History


Original Articles

Sulphur Fractionation in the Sediments of Cochin Estuary

Shylesh Chandran M.S., Sudheesh S., Ramasamy E.V. and Mahesh Mohan

Pages 1-6


Mercury Contamination in the Artisanal Gold Mining Regions of Nilambur, Kerala, South India

Rahul Ramesh, M.S. Shylesh Chandran, K. Sreedharan and Mahesh Mohan

Pages 7-13


Land Use Changes in India and its Impacts on Environment

Shashi Chawla

Pages 14-20


Geoelectrical Soundings to Investigate Groundwater Potential of Orisunmibare Village in Ilorin South Area of Kwara State, Nigeria

K.O. Ibrahim, Olasehinde P.I, A.O. Akinrinmade and A. Isa

Pages 21-25


Geological Investigation of Tagwai Dams using Remote Sensing Technique, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

K.O. Ibrahim, A.O. Akinrinmade, and A. Abdurrahman

Pages 26-32



Title

Sulphur Fractionation in the Sediments of Cochin Estuary

Abstract

Sulphur is an important redox element in the estuarine sediment and links with biogeochemical process of various elements. In the present study, anoxic sediment samples of Cochin estuary was undergone sequential chemical extraction in order to determine the contents of reduced sulphur species such as Elemental Sulphur (ES), Acid Volatile Sulphur (AVS), Cold Chromium Reducible Sulphur (CCRS), Hot Chromium Reducible Sulphur (HCRS). It was observed that Acid volatile Sulphides (AVS) are the second dominant fraction at the highly polluted region of the estuary. Sediments of other regions are dominated by CRS fractions (CCRS and HCRS).  Temperature found to be significantly correlated with AVS, CCRS and HCRS. The results showed that the sediments of Cochin estuary have the potential for the production of both AVS and pyrites.  It can be concluded that the transformation and mobility of toxic metals in the Cochin estuarine sediments may be affected by the sulphur chemistry.

Keywords

Sulphur, Fractionation, Sediment, Cochin Estuary, AVS

 

Title

Mercury Contamination in the Artisanal Gold Mining Regions of Nilambur, Kerala, South India

Abstract

Artisanal gold mining (AGM), where high amount of mercury is using without proper protection is one among the major sources of mercury pollution. AGM is being practiced at various regions in India, but studies are meager in this part of the world. The present study analysed the mercury content of sediment samples collected from the artisanal gold mining regions of Nilambur Valley, a part of Wayanad Gold field, Kerala. The AGM activity is reduced during the last few years due to the restriction of forest department and reduction in the quantity of available alluvial gold deposit. The results showed that concentration of mercury in the sediments varied from 0.103 to 0.468 mg/kg with a mean of 0.365 mg/kg. These values are higher than the values prescribed by USEPA for uncontaminated sediments. The results clearly indicate that the region is contaminated with mercury and the values are lower than the AGM regions of other part of the world as well as the polluted regions in India.

Keywords

Artisanal Gold Mining, Mercury, Pollution, Water, Sediment

 

Title

Land Use Changes in India and its Impacts on Environment

Abstract

Land use changes result from population growth and migration of poor rural people to urban areas for economic opportunities. Changes in land use directly influence the regional air quality, energy consumption and climate at global, regional and local scales. Controlled, coordinated and planned urbanization is a gift to the human society. However, unplanned urbanization can be a disaster. Urban sprawl refers to some types of uncoordinated land use resulting from lack of integrated and holistic approach in regional planning. Information related to the rate of growth, pattern and extent of sprawl is required by urban planners to provide basic amenities such as water, sanitation, electricity, etc. Urban sprawl increases traffic problems, depletes local resources and destroys open space. Thus, it is very important to examine causes of urban spread out, its associated problems and possible solutions in India. This paper provides a valuable basis to understand the major issues faced by urban citizens in India as a consequence of land use changes. The suggested solutions are very helpful for the strategic planning in future.

Keywords

Land Use Changes, India, Environmental Impact, Pollution

 

Title

Geoelectrical Soundings to Investigate Groundwater Potential of Orisunmibare Village in Ilorin South Area of Kwara State, Nigeria

Abstract

A Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) Method was employed to determine the groundwater potential of Orisunmibare Village in the neighbourhood of federal government college, Ilorin. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a portable water borehole in the study area. Presently, there is no municipal water supply in the study area and the water source is from individual hand dug wells. A total of nine VES were carried out in different parts of the study area with DDR1 resistivity meter equipped with an SAS 2000 booster by means of Schlumberger electrode array configuration. The interpretation of the VES curve was carried out by partial curve matching method to obtain initial model parameters and computer iterations using WinResist Software. The curves reveal that the area is characterized by five classes of geo-electric layers. First, highly resistive topsoil layer has a thickness between 0.2-1.0 m. The second lateritic clay layer has thickness ranges from 3.3-15.0 m. Third layer is highly weathered basement with thickness of 6.0-30.7 m. The fourth fractured with weathered rock layer has thickness from 20.0-40.2 m, and fresh basement representing fifth layer has a thickness from 20 m and above. The results indicate the occurrence of good aquifers in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth VES stations in the form of the weathered and fractured basement. Results also indicate that borehole drilling in the study area is achievable but to a depth of 45 meters to allow large reservoir within the aquifers.

Keywords

Vertical Electrical Soundings, DDR1 Resistivity Meter, Schlumberger Array, Visual Curve Inspection Win Resist Software

 

Title

Geological Investigation of Tagwai Dams using Remote Sensing Technique, Minna Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract

A dam is required to impound the water and its design and construction must be capable of preventing the uncontrollable leakage of reservoir water around and beneath its structure. The studied area is called Tagwai dam, the dam serves as major water supply to Minna and it’s environ. The present condition of the dam is an eye saw; about 60% of surface areas formally occupied by water have shrunk due to percolation of sediment from upstream into the dam, poor embankment inadequate dredging, fishing, farming activities and high rate of evaporation that result into desiccation crack. At the upstream outcrops are highly exposed, granite and pegmatite intruded into the schist rock. Along the stream channel thick overburden of about six meters was seen with the evidence of gully erosion at the downstream. Utilization of remote sensing information in assessing the regional geology of Tagwai dam has increase effectiveness and reduces time and costs. Commonly, a series of remote sensing images, taken at various times, were used. Remote sensing images used for evaluating regional geology include both aerial photographs and satellite images. Remote sensing analysis software was used to evaluate geomorphic characteristics and geologic structure; map soils, sediment sources, and transport directions; and monitor and evaluate environmental impacts around the dam area, two imagery of year 2000 and 2008 of Tagwai dam shows evidence of size differences in dam. Attempts have been made to delineate these problems by geological mapping and remote sensing techniques. From field investigation and remote sensing imagery, the dam shows rapid reduction in size and shape, if left uncared for, the state government may loss the dam.

Keywords

Geological Investigation, Tagwai Dams, Remote Sensing Technique, Minna