CJ-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 03 MAY 2012


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Volume 2 Issue 3, May 2012

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages 

95-135

Publication History


Original Articles

Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium-Contaminated Wastewater using Activated Carbon and Bentonite

Salah Abdel Wanees,  Abdel Monem M. Ahmed, Mohamed S. Adam and  Mamdouh A. Mohamed

Pages 95-105

An Improved and Eco-Friendly Method for the Synthesis of Flavanone by the Cyclization of 2’-Hydroxy Chalcone using Methane Sulphonic Acid as Catalyst

Pramod Kulkarni, Pradip Wagh and Pudukulathan Zubaidha

Pages 106-110

Synthesis of 1'-(Carbo-t-butoxy) Spiro[isochroman–1,4'-piperidinyl]-3-Carboxylic Acid

K. Anjaneyulu, B. Ram, P.B. Wagh and Pudukulathan  Zubaidha

Pages 111-117

Nanostructured Materials: Importance, Synthesis and Characterization

Mai Mostafa Khalaf, Hikmet Gamal Ibrahimov and Etibar Hummat Ismailov

Pages 118-125

Adsorption of Some Complex Surfactants Based on Pelargonic Acid at Carbon Steel in Aqueo-us Carbon Dioxide Solutions

Ahmed H. Tantawy , Adel A. Marzouk, Mai M. Khalaf  and Hany M. Abd El-Lateef

Pages 126-135


Title

Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium-Contaminated Waste-water using Activated Carbon and Bentonite

Abstract

In this study, the adsorption potential of activated carbon and bentonite for removal of Cr(VI) ions from wastewater has been investigated. The study involves batch type experiments to investigate the effects of initial concentration, adsorbent dose, agitation speed, contact time, temperature and pH of solution on adsorption process and the evaluation of optimum conditions. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data, and both were found to be applicable to this adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ΔG, ΔS and ΔH of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and found the sorption process as endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Cr(VI) than activated carbon, under the same experimental conditions.

Keywords

Wastewater, Chromium, Activated Carbon, Bentonite, Removal


Title

An Improved and Eco-Friendly Method for the Synthesis of Flavanone by the Cyclization of 2’-Hydroxy Chalcone using Methane Sulphonic Acid as Catalyst

Abstract

Flavanones are important biosynthetic precursors for the synthesis of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols and dihydroflavonols. The flavanone skeleton is present in a wide range of synthetic and naturally occurring products exhibiting various interesting pharmacological activities. The present paper describes the use of methane sulphonic acid as an efficient organocatalyst for the synthesis of substituted flavanones from 2’-Hydroxy Chalcones in good yields and in short reaction time. The catalytic efficiency of methane sulphonic acid in cyclisation of chalcones to flavanones has been demonstrated with a variety of substrates bearing electron–deficient to electron rich groups on chalcones and the yields obtained are higher than the reported methods with triflluoroacetic acid / mineral acids. Methane sulphonic acid is an inexpensive, safe, eco-friendly acid catalyst with low LD50. The present protocol could find wide spread application in the synthesis of flavanones bearing free hydroxyl groups on the aromatic moiety. At the same time the methodology would be useful for the synthesis of naturally occurring bioactive flavanones.

Keywords

Methane Sulphonic Acid, 2’-Hydroxy Chalcone, Flavanone, Cyclisation, Acetic acid


Title

Synthesis of 1'-(Carbo-t-butoxy) Spiro[isochroman–1,4'-piperidinyl]-3-Carboxylic Acid

Abstract

Sigma (σ) receptors widely distributed in central nervous system and other vital peripheral organs, regulate number of physiological processes, as a consequence sigma selective ligands are of therapeutic importance. Involvement of σ receptors in psychosis is infused from the fact that both subtypes exhibit high affinities to typical neuroleptics and anti-depressants. Recent studies reveal that σ-1 receptors play a role in the regulation of gastro-intestinal effects, the modulation of opiod analgesia, the attenuation of cocaine induced loco-motor activity and toxicity. The present paper describes synthesis of potential sigma ligand derived from Spiro piperidine moiety from easily available starting materials in high yield. The strategy for the construction of key spiro-cyclic piperidine core from 2-bromo benzaldehyde involves one carbon homologation followed by introduction of piperidine moiety via Grignard reaction and acid catalysed cyclisation of acetal, 10. Further, replacement of the methoxy group in cyclic ether, 11, by cyano group followed by hydrolysis to carboxylic acid affords the required spiro-cyclic piperidine skeleton in good yield.

Keywords

σ-Receptors, 2-Bromobenzaldehyde, N-Benzylpiperidone, Para-Toluenesulfonic Acid


Title

Nanostructured Materials: Importance, Synthesis and Characterization

Abstract

The current state of research is surveyed. The review covers the catalytic technologies, the importance of nanostructured materials, the methods of preparation and the characterization of these materials is discussed, and here we take an example of iron nanomaterials for the preparation of nanostructured materials. Interest in iron nanoparticles originates from iron’s magnetic properties, for its ready availability and low cost, and its high reactivity, particularly, in reducing atmospheres. Specific applications for iron nanoparticles include Fischer–Tropsch catalysts, oxygen reduction catalysts in fuel cells, and environmental adsorbents for CO or arsenic, nanoscale iron particles also have large surface areas and high surface reactivity. It is also important; they provide enormous flexibility for in situ applications. This review also has shown that nanoscale iron particles are very effective for the transformation and detoxificat-ion of a wide variety of common environmental contaminants, such as chlorinated organic solvents and catalysts for CO oxidation.

Keywords

Nanostructured Materials, Iron Nanoparticles, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, STEM, AFM


Title

Adsorption of Some Complex Surfactants Based on Pelargonic Acid at Carbon Steel in Aqueous Carbon Dioxide Solutions

Abstract

The inhibition of the corrosion of carbon steel in CO2 saturated solution by some new complex surfactants has been studied using weigh loss and the extrapolation of catho-dic and anodic Tafel lines techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the surfactants. The adsorption of complex surfactants on the carbon steel surface obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Values of inhibition efficiency calculated from weight loss and the extrapolation of cathodic and anodic Tafel lines are in good agreement. Polarization curves showed that the inhibitors beh-ave as a mixed-type inhibitor in NaCl saturated solutions. The surface active properties and thermodynamic parameters of micellization and adsorption studied including Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC), maximum surface excess (Γmax), and minimum surface area (Amin) free energy of micellization and adsorption were also calculated.

Keywords

Complex Surfactants, Carbon Steel, CO2-Saturated Solution, Inhibition Efficiency, Micellization, Adsorption