IRJP-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 03 MAY 2012


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Volume 2 Issue 3, May 2012

International Research Journal of Pharmaceuticals

ISSN

2048-4143

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

58-81

Publication History

 

Original Articles

 

Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Fruit Extract of Averrhoa carambola

Biswa Nath Das and Muniruddin Ahmed

Pages 58-61

Abstract

Effects of Sun Dried Organic Apricot on Some Serum Mineral Levels in Rats

I. Yılmaz, I. Temel, S. Gursoy, Z. Dogan Z and Y. Turkoz

Pages 62-67

Abstract

Antimicrobial Activities of Garcinia kola Seed Oil against Some Clinical Microbial Isolates

Segun A. Aderibigbe

Pages 68-72

Abstract

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Rhizome Extract of Alpinia nigra

Biswa Nath Das and Bishyajit Kumar Biswas

Pages 73-76

Abstract

Intestinal Parasites of Experimental Rodents with Testing the Efficacy of Diagnostic Methods

Rezan K. Ahmed, Qaraman M.K. Koyee and Zohair I.F. Rahemo

Pages 77-81

Abstract


Title

Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Fruit Extract of Averrhoa carambola

Abstract

The investigation was conducted with methanolic fruit extract of Averrhoa carambola for its antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Antibacterial activity of the extract was evaluated against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using disk diffusion technique. For cytotoxic activity, brine shrimp lethality bioassay was performed to estimate LC50 values. In our preliminary screening, the n-hexane, water and dichloromethane soluble fractions of the crude methanolic extract of Averrhoa carambola were subjected to antibacterial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The water and dichloromethane soluble partitionate of the methanol extract of Averrhoa carambola exhibited mild to moderate antibacterial activity. Water extract of the said plant showed antibacterial activity against staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (Gram positive) while dichloromethane its extract showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative). Dichloromethane soluble partitionate exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp, Artemia salina having LC50 of 1.180 μg/mL.

Keywords

Averrhoa carambola, Oxalidaceae, Antibacterial Activity, Cytotoxic Activity, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay

 

Title

Effects of Sun Dried Organic Apricot on Some Serum Mineral Levels in Rats

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the nutritional value and determine appropriate supplementation rate and periods of Sun Dried Organic Apricot (SDOA) on the serum mineral levels in rats. In the present study, 120 male and 120 female Sprague Dawley rats were used. Rats were randomly divided into five rate groups for every gender (n=24). The control group was fed with standard rat chow and the others were fed with 1, 2.5, 5 and 10% SDOA supplemented diet respectively. On the 30th, 60th and 120th days, 8 rats from each gender of the different group were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Obtained serum samples were used for mineral analysis. Although the K levels increased, Na and Fe levels showed no difference and the Ca and Mg levels decreased in all SDOA supplementation rates and periods. Additionally, the serum iron levels in female rats and the phosphor rate in male rats were found significantly higher than those of the opposite gender. Considering the present study results for each gender, among the periods and rates, 30 days feeding period and 1% SDOA supplementation rate may have a remarkable beneficial effect on serum mineral levels.

Keywords

Sun Dried Organic Apricot, Rates and Periods, Serum Mineral Levels, Rat

 

Title

Antimicrobial Activities of Garcinia kola Seed Oil against Some Clinical Microbial Isolates

Abstract

Oils, fats including their hydrolytic products (glycerol and fatty acids) are widely used as raw materials in food, cosmetics, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, the seed oil of Garcinia kola was investigated for its antimicrobial properties. The seed oil, extracted with n-hexane by cold maceration was assessed for the presence of secondary metabolites and thereafter tested against some bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae), fungal (Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillum notatum and Candida albicans) clinical isolates. Qualitative phytochemical tests as well as thin layer chromatographic profile of the oil indicated the presence of some dissolved secondary metabolites such as phenols and alkaloids. The oil was found to possess a broad-spectrum of activity which is concentration-dependent against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolates as well as the fungi isolates. The oil could find applications in the formulation of antimicrobial creams and lotions for treating skin diseases, in food preservation and in folk medicine.

Keywords

Garcinia kola Seed Oil, Antimicrobial, Secondary Metabolites, Clinical Microbial Isolates

 

Title

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Rhizome Extract of Alpinia nigra

Abstract

Alpinia nirga is a common plant widely available in Bangladesh. Different parts of the plant have been usedextensively in various traditional formulations. In order to rationalize the traditional use of Alpinia nirga, the extract of the rhizome of Alpinia nirga obtained by cold extraction of mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol was chosen for Phyto-pharmacological screening. For this purpose, present experimental study was done to investigate anti-inflammatory activity of rhizome of Alpinia nirga in Albino rats. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Carrageenin-Induced Paw Edema method. Healthy Swiss-Albino rat of either sex weighing 120-180 g were used for the test; twenty-four mice, aged 4-5 weeks, were randomly selected and divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Each group was given a particular treatment i.e. control, positive control and the two different doses of the extract. In Carrageenin-Induced Paw Edema model, Alpinia nirga at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, caused significant inhibition of paw edema by 27.13% (p<0.001) and 34.97% (p<0.001) respectively, 4 hour after carrageenin administration.  

Keywords

Alpinia nirga, Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Carrageenin Induced Paw Edema Method, Albino Rats

 

Title

Intestinal Parasites of Experimental Rodents with Testing the Efficacy of Diagnostic Methods

Abstract

From the beginning of January 2010 to the end of Jun 2011, three axes of parasitological investigations were performed in the animal house of Science College-Salahaddin University-Erbil/Iraq. In first axis, Twenty-Five adult albino rats were examined in which the overall prevalence with the different types of intestinal parasites was 76%. The following intestinal parasites were identified in the present study as: Trichomonas muris with the higher incidence of 56%, followed by Scyphacia muris 24%, Giardia muris 12%, Hexamita muris 8% and the least infection percentage was 4% for both Entamoeba muris and Hymenolepis spp. Single parasitic infection was the highest (52%), followed by double infection, 16%, and two cases of triple infection (8%). In the second axis of parasitological investigation: Ten adult albino rats and mice were selected for a comparison of diagnostic techniques by using direct and indirect (Zinc-Sulphate, saturated salt solution and sugar solution) floating methods for intestinal parasites existence. The most efficient method for detecting the infection rate with protozoa (Entamoeba muris 80% and Giardia muris 40%) in albino rats was by using saturated NaCl salt solution while in mice by using Zinc-Sulfate for Entamoeba muris 40% and Giardia muris 20%. The percentage of infection for both cestodes and nematodes in rats by using direct method were 50% and 30% and for mice, it was 30% and 40% respectively. The results of indirect methods for detecting these intestinal helminthes were the same when compared with direct method. In third axis, a comparison between using Scotch tape method and direct wet mount slide was carried out for the detection of Syphacia muris and Syphacia obvelata. Among thirty albino rats and ten mice examined, the rate of infection were 40% by using Scotch tape for both rats and mice while it was 16.6% and 30% by direct wet method respectively, showing that the former method (indirect) proved to be more efficient.

Keywords

Intestinal Parasites, Rodents, Diagnostic Methods, Efficacy, Protozoans, Helminthes