IRJP-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 04 JULY 2012


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Volume 2 Issue 4, July 2012

International Research Journal of Pharmaceuticals

ISSN

2048-4143

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

82-126

Publication History


Original Articles

Preparation and Evaluation of Certain Hydrophilic Drug-Loaded Microspheres

Prof. Dr. Mohamed Aly Kassem, Mona Ibrahim Abdel- Tawab El Assal  and Aly Al-Saeed Al-Badrawy

Pages 82-90

 

Protective Effect of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata against Simvastatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Mohammed Fazil Ahmed, A. Srinivasa Rao, Shaik Rasheed Ahemad and Mohammed Ibrahim

Pages 91-97

Spectrophotometric Analysis of Selected Coordination Compound with Glutathione (GSH) In-vitro Study

Hashmat Ullah, Muhammad Farid Khan and Farwa Hashmat

Pages 98-105

 

Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Morinda citrifolia L. Root Extract

Samuel Beena Elizabeth and K. Murugesan

Pages 106-111

Nanotechnology Challenges; Nanomedicine: Nanorabots

Jhansee Mishra, Alok Kumar Dash and Rajeev Kumar

Pages 112-119

Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Cnestis ferruginea on Swiss Albino Mice Induced with Paracetamol

F.C. Akharaiyi, B.E. Boboye and F.C. Adetuyi

Pages 120-126

 

Title

Preparation and Evaluation of Certain Hydrophilic Drug-Loaded Microspheres

Abstract

Microencapsulation is a useful method for prolonging drug release from dosage forms and reducing adverse effects. Recently, dosage forms that can precisely control the release rates and target drugs to a specific body site have made an enormous impact in the formulation and development of novel drug delivery systems. Microspheres are defined as spherical polymeric particles. These microspheres constitute an important part of these drug delivery systems, by the virtue of their small and uniform size and efficient carrier characteristics. It would, therefore, be advantageous to have means for providing an intimate contact of the drug delivery system with the absorbing membranes. This preliminary study shows that optimum polymer concentration, crosslinker concentration and stirring speed are 3%, 7.5% and 400 rpm respectively, the optimum conditions to prepare microspheres by ionotropic gelation with high drug entrapment efficiency are: drug concentration 1.5% w/v, curing time 15 minutes and the concentration of another poly anionic polymer (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) 0.3% w/v. In phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) the rapid swelling and erosion of the microspheres have greatly contributed in facilitating the drug release rate. Different mathematical models of drug release were obtained for the microspheres indicating that the drug release from the microspheres is controlled by first order kinetics.

Keywords

Drug Release, Entrapment Efficiency, Microspheres, Orifice Ionotropic Gelation Technique, Sodium Alginate, Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na CMC)

  

Title

Protective Effect of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata against Simvastatin Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective activities of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata against simvastatin induced hepatotoxicity. The phytochemical screening was carried on the ethanolic leaves extract of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata revealed the presence of some active ingredients such as Alkaloids, Amino acids, Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Phenols, Proteins, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins and Terpenoids. Hepatotoxicity in rats was induced by simvastatin (20 mg/kg p.o. for 30 days) and the protective effect of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (300 mg/kg/p.o. and 500 mg/kg/p.o. either along with drug or followed by inducing hepatotoxicity) was identified by estimating marker enzymes. There was a significant changes were recorded in biochemical parameters i.e. increases in Serum Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (SGOT), Alanine Phosphatase (ALP), Serum bilirubin and decrease  in  Total  proteins  content and in oxidative stress markers such as GPx, GST, SOD and CAT,  in  simvastatin treated  rats,  which  were restored  towards  normalization  in Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) treated animals. Thus the present study ascertains that the leaf extract of Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata possesses significant hepatoprotective activity.

Keywords

Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata, Hepatoprotective Activity, Simvastatin, Ethanol, Antioxidant Activity and Silymarin

Title

Spectrophotometric Analysis of Selected Coordination Compound with Glutathione (GSH) In-vitro Study

Abstract

Cadmium acetate is a coordination polymer, which is commonly used in ceramic, pottery, in electro plating baths, in dyeing and printing. It is also used as analytical reagent and is classified as group 1 carcinogen by the IARC, 1993. Because of carcinogenic and hazardous nature of cadmium and its long half life in humans, it was interesting to investigate the effect of cadmium on the chemical status of glutathione in vitro reaction as a model of in vivo reaction. For this very purpose the effect of different concentrations of cadmium acetate i.e. 0.0001 mM, 0.001 mM, 0.01 mM, 0.1 mM, 1.0 mM and 2.0 mM  were treated with constant concentration of Glutathione (1 mM) and the effect was investigated by recording absorbance of all sample mixtures at fixed wavelength λmax i.e. 412 nm (Ellman’s method ), using UV–visible spectrophotometer. In this research, we have studied (i) the effect of different concentrations of CdAc2 on GSH (constant concentration) and (ii) the effect of different concentrations of CdAc2 on chemical status of GSH at six different times of incubation i.e. 0 min to 120 min.

Keywords

Cadmium Acetate (CdAc2), Spectrophotometer, Glutathione (Reduced Form), Cd(GS)2 formation, Ellman’s Reagent (DTNB)

 

Title

Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Morinda citrifolia L. Root Extract

Abstract

This work attempts to determine the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract from roots of Morinda citrifolia using in-vitro model using several methods such as 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radical, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay and FRAP (Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) assay. The IC50 value of methanolic extract from roots of Morinda citrifolia L. for DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, was 25µg/ml, while in hydrogen peroxide scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) assay it was greater than 50µg/ml. It was more than 25µg/ml for superoxide scavenging assay. The results showed high antioxidant activities in all the methods tested for the extracts. This investigation suggested that Morinda citrifolia L. might serve as a potent source of natural antioxidant activity. The results provide useful information on the pharmacological activities associated with this traditional folk remedy.

Keywords

Morinda citrifolia, Antioxidant Activity, DPPH Radical; Free Radicals, Superoxide Radical 

 

Title

Nanotechnology Challenges; Nanomedicine: Nanorabots

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a fascinating science for many scientists as it offers them many challenges. One such challenge is Nanorobots, which once thought to be a fantasy has come into reality now. The proposed application of nanorobots can range from common cold to dreadful disease like cancer. Some such examples can be Respirocyte, Microbivores, Chromallocyte and many more. The study of nanorobots has lead to the field of Nanomedicine. Nanomedicine offers the prospect of powerful new tools for the treatment of human diseases and the improvement of human biological systems. The present era of Nanotechnology has reached to a stage where scientists are able to develop programmable and externally controllable complex machines that are built at molecular level which can work inside the patient’s body. Nanotechnology will enable engineers to construct sophisticated nanorobots that can navigate the human body, transport important molecules, manipulate microscopic objects and communicate with physicians by way of miniature sensors, motors, manipulators, power generators and molecular-scale computers. Nanorobots have remarkable applications in health care and environmental monitoring. In future, nanorobots will be useful or applicable in treating various diseases like cancer, diabetes, tumour or respiration related diseases.

Keywords

Nanomedicine, Nanorobots, Respirocyte, Microbivores, Chromallocyte

 

Title

Hepatoprotective Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Cnestis ferruginea on Swiss Albino Mice Induced with Paracetamol

Abstract

The liver serves a vital function in human system. It has the primary metabolic function of regulating the blood concentration of most metabolites, particularly glucose and amino acids. Its characteristic structure and organization enable it to perform vital roles in regulating, synthesizing, storing, secreting, transforming and breaking down of different substances in the body. However, to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol leaf extract of Cnestis ferruginea, twenty adult Swiss albino mice weighing between 100-150g were divided into four groups. Extract dose of between 400–2000 mg/kg body weight of extract was administered orally to the mice. Dose related differences in all the parameters assayed were observed.  After inducing the mice with Paracetamol (toxicant) and the various extract dose for 72 hours, hepatoprotective effects of the extract was measured through Aspartate aminotransferrase (AST), Alanine aminotransferrase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatise (ALP) activities and histopathological study of the liver. The results showed that the enzyme levels of AST, ALT and ALP in the mice serum treated with paracetamol (positive control) was higher than the values obtained from the negative control. Meanwhile, there were no much differences in the values obtained from the negative control, the groups treated with only 400-2000 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract and the groups treated with the leaf extract after prior exposure to paracetamol. The histopathological study suggested that the ethanol leaf extract of Cnestis ferruginea possessed some degree of hepatoprotective ability. 

Keywords

Ethanol Extract, Paracetamol, Hepatoprotective, Leaf, Swiss Mice