IRJP-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 05 SEPTEMBER 2012


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Volume 2 Issue 5, September 2012

International Research Journal of Pharmaceuticals

ISSN

2048-4143

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

127-147

Publication History


Original Articles

Mixture of Honey and Ginger Extract for Antibacterial Assessment on Some Clinical Isolates

F.O. Omoya and F.C. Akharaiyi

Pages 127-132

 

Concomitant Treatment of Type 2 Diabetics with Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor and Metformin Increases Insulin Sensitivity

A.M. Ebeid, N.E. El-Ashmawy, E.A. El-Zamarany, M. Gabre and S.M. EL-Haggar

Pages 133-142

Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Palisota hirsuta on CCl4 Induced Hepatotoxicity

Kate Evbu Imafidon, Dr. Okunrobo Osaro Lucky and Adesua Veronica Orhiere

Pages 143-147



Title

Mixture of Honey and Ginger Extract for Antibacterial Assessment on Some Clinical Isolates

Abstract

The antibacterial activity of honey, methanol and ethanol extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) were investigated against some selected bacteria using the agar diffusion technique. Two Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria were assessed for possible inhibition by the extract samples. The inhibitory potency of the extracts on the test organisms varied in the halos as inhibition effects. Though all the test organisms were susceptible to the antibacterial samples with inhibition measure between 6-3 mm, E. coli was the most inhibited where an inhibitory measure of 20 mm was recorded with honey, 18 mm with ginger ethanol extract and 32 mm with the mixture of honey and ginger ethanol extract. The pasture honey, the ethanol and methanol extracts of ginger were both positive for saponin and cardiac glycosides among the phytochemicals identified. While some of the commercial antibiotics (positive control) were not effective on the test organisms, gentamycin and streptomycin were effective with inhibitory halos ranging between 8-25 mm. However, the antibacterial test samples were higher in inhibition values than the reference drugs (positive control).

Keywords

Extract, Pasture Honey, Mixture, Clinical, Antibacterial

Title

Concomitant Treatment of Type 2 Diabetics with Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor and Metformin Increases Insulin Sensitivity

Abstract

Vildagliptin is one of the dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors that act to delay endogenous degradation of the incretin hormones. This work was designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin in controlling hyperglycemia and lowering insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as monotherapy, and as combined therapy with metformin. Forty-five obese T2DM patients were enrolled in the study in addition to 10 healthy volunteers, who served as control. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on drug type intake i.e. Vildagliptin, Metformin and Co-treatment groups.  Fasting blood samples were taken at the start of study and after 2 months of treatment. Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG) was decreased by 21.87%, 48.54%, and 32.27% in vildagliptin, metformin, and co-treatment groups respectively. The decrease of FBG was associated with an improvement of lipid profile and a parallel decrease in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, and free fatty acids. Vildagliptin produced a significant increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 by 30.15%, as monotherapy, and 45.38% as combined therapy with metformin. The strategy of the use of DPP-4 inhibitors is expected to be of increasing value in the future treatment of T2DM.

Keywords

DPP-4 Inhibitors, T2DM, Diabetes mellitus Insulin Resistance, GLP-1, Leptin, Free Fatty Acids


Title

Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Palisota hirsuta on CCl4 Induced Hepatotoxicity

Abstract

The effects of ethanolic extracts of Palisota hirsute on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Biochemical and histological analyses were carried out, biochemical parameters examined include; total protein, albumin, total bilirubin, AST, ALT and ALP activities. Consequently, 40 rats (Wistar strain) were divided into 5 groups of 8 rats each. The animals were fed on rats’ chow and water ad libitum. With the exception of group 1 (positive control), all the groups were induced with CCl4 alongside vegetable oil (1:1). Animals in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were administered 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight of drug extract respectively. Measurements of body and liver weights were recorded. Results showed increase in body weights of rats administered the extracts compared with the negative control, increase in liver weights were observed in all the rats induced with CCl4. Reductions in total bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP concentrations of rats administered the drug extracts compared with the negative control (group 2) indicate the ameliorative effects of the extract especially at the 400 & 800 mg/kg dose levels. Histological examination of the liver of the rats in the negative control group showed periportal inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatocyte fatty degeneration, these effects were slightly abated on administration of the drug extract. This work therefore demonstrates the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic leaf extract of P. hirsuta. 

Keywords

Ethanolic Extract, Palisota hirsuta, Carbon Tetrachloride, Induced Hepatotoxicity, Wister Rats