JE-VOLUME 01 ISSUE 03 SEPTEMBER 2012


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Volume 1 Issue 3, September 2012

Journal of Environment

ISSN

2049-8373

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

75-110

Publication History


Original Articles

Microbially-Mediated Methyl Iodide Production in Water Samples from an Estuarine System

Noble K. Asare, Carol M. Turley, Philip D. Nightingale and Malcolm Nimmo

Pages 75-83

 

Evaluating Pollution Potential of Irrigation by Domestic Wastewater on Fertile Soil Quality of Mamurabad Watershed Area near Jalgaon Urban Centre, Maharashtra, India

Deepali Yeole, S.N. Patil, and N.D. Wagh

Pages 84-92

 

Distribution and Antibacterial Activity of Actinomycetes from Shola Soils of Tropical Montane Forest in Kerala, South India

Rinoy Varghese, Nishamol S., Suchithra R., Jyothy S. and Dr. A.A. Mohamed Hatha

Pages 93-99

Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Spirogyra Species

D.K. Pattanaik, Subhashree Pattanaik and R.B. Panda

Pages 100-104

Land Use Changing Scenario at Kerniganj Thana of Dhaka District Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Farzana Raihan and Nowrine Kaiser

Pages 105-110


Title

Microbially-Mediated Methyl Iodide Production in Water Samples from an Estuarine System

Abstract

The dynamics of aquatic systems are known to facilitate the formation of aggregates of nutrient-rich particulate matter which provide suitable substrate for microbial colonization. Although bacteria-aggregate associations often result in the degradation of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in aquatic systems, little is known about their contribution to the production of methyl iodide (CH3I), an environmentally important biogas that has a potential impact on atmospheric chemistry. This study investigated the role of microbial communities in the production of CH3I and its facilitation by particle aggregation in the Tamar estuary in the South-West of England. Macroaggregates were generated through a laboratory simulated aggregation process. Assessment of bacterial abundance, production and elevated concentration of CH3I indicated that microbial activity in the experimental setups resulted in the production of CH3I. A statistical test of significance between aggregated and non-aggregated setups also indicated that the presence of bacterial aggregates significantly enhanced CH3I production by about 32% of the concentration attributed to microbial activity. This suggests that estuarine systems are potentially ideal environments for microbially-mediated CH3I production.

Keywords

Macroaggregates, Microbial Assemblage, Methyl Iodide Production, Estuarine System, Tamar Estuary

Title

Evaluating Pollution Potential of Irrigation by Domestic Wastewater on Fertile Soil Quality of Mamurabad Watershed Area near Jalgaon Urban Centre, Maharashtra, India

Abstract

A water and soil quality investigation was carried out in the Mamurabad watershed area near the Jalgaon urban centre. Total six samples of soil and four samples of Wastewater of Lendi Nala were analyzed from the study area. Application of untreated sewage water for the irrigation purpose is the common practice in the study area. The main aim of this study was to investigate and correlate the adverse impacts on soil quality around the Mamurabad watershed area. The results showed that Electrical Conductivity (EC), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), SO4-, Cl-, NO3- and some heavy metals such as Fe++, Cu++, were observed above the limit. The calculated values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) suggest the long-term use of untreated sewage will lead to some serious pollutional aspects and ultimately to the health of the peoples in the study area. Anthropogenic activities affect the variation of sewage quality. The social and economical development of the study area is closely associated with the hydrological networks of the study area. 

Keywords

Wastewater, Soil, Irrigation, Mamurabad Watershed, Jalgaon

Title

Distribution and Antibacterial Activity of Actinomycetes from Shola Soils of Tropical Montane Forest in Kerala, South India

Abstract

Tropical Montane forests of Kerala are relatively unexplored and offer potential habitat in the search for Actinomycetes that could produce novel bioactive compounds. Search for novel bioactive compounds from Actinomycetes in virgin habitats assumes significance as the emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens are threatening effective medical intervention through conventional antibiotics. In the present study spatio-temporal variation of Actinomycetes in relation to important soil physico-chemical characteristics of the Shola forest and their potential to elaborate antibacterial substances has been evaluated. Identification of the isolates revealed that most of them were belonging to Streptomyces followed by Nocardia, Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia, Streptosporangium, Nocardiopsis and Saccharomonospora. A total of 36 Actinomycetes strains were characterized and screened for antibacterial activities using well diffusion method against 6 bacterial pathogens. Among the 36 isolates 33 were active against one or more of the tested pathogens, of that 43% exhibited activity against Gram negative and 57% showed activity against Gram positive bacteria. Isolate SH20 (Streptomyces) showed activity against all the tested organisms and its inhibition zone diameter was also high. The results indicate that the Shola forest soils could be an interesting source of Actinomycetes with potential antibacterial activity.

Keywords

Tropical Montane Forest, Actinomycetes, Streptomyces, Bacterial pathogens, Antibacterial Activity

Title

Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Spirogyra Species

Abstract

The presence of hexavalent chromium in surface water, ground water and mining effluent in Sukinda valley, Jajpur district, Odisha beyond permissible limit is carcinogenic in nature and the attempt for its remediation is a major concern amongst environmentalist, regulatory authorities and researchers from various disciplines since the date of its reporting. The conventional method of reducing Cr+6   by ferrous sulphate in the entire valley at present is not environmental friendly and cost effective. The use of different organic products for reducing Cr+6 to Cr+3 is not yet practiced. Therefore in this study the use of Spirogyra sp. in reducing hexavalent chromium from contaminated water has been explored. The chromite pit bottom water with 2.0 mg/L of hexavalent chromium after allowing for one hour in a beaker containing cleaned Spirogyra sp. reduced the Cr+6 content level up to 0.05 mg/L at normal room temperature and at pH 7.0. At successive span of 4 hr, 8 hr, 16 hr, 48 hr, the reduction does not change appreciably with same quantity of biomass. The results indicate that during continuous discharge of mine effluent the treatment by Spirogyra sp. may not be very much effective. It may be very much useful for remediation of stagnant mine water. It helps in reducing the hexavalent chromium content from slow moving shallow surface water of Damsal Nala as well in to which the surface run off and improperly treated mine effluent is discharged.

Keywords

Hexavalent Chromium, Spirogyra Species, Mining Effluent, Jajpur

 

Title

Land Use Changing Scenario at Kerniganj Thana of Dhaka District Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Abstract

As Dhaka city is expanding day by day proper land use planning is an urgent need for its peripheral areas like Keraniganj Thana. Rapid land use change has taken place in many regions Keraniganj Thana over the past two decades due to accelerated industrialization and urbanization. The study was conducted to investigate the land-use pattern change of the Keraniganj Thana at Dhaka district over a period of 10 years (1997-2006) by using remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies. The images were processed using ERDAS Imagine 8.4. Both supervised and unsupervised approaches were applied and ground control points were collected using a GPS. Maps were prepared using GIS software. The paper presents the data, methods for land use change detection and results from land cover change detection. The attributes of classified image of 1997 showed only 3487.73 acres of built-up areas, but in 2006 a rapid increase of built-up areas were found and it was around 4137.05 acres. Urbanization in this area have been mostly unplanned, chaotic and irregular which have led to alarming land, water, air and noise pollution resulting in much deterioration of environment.

Keywords

Land Use Change, Urbanization, GIS, Remote Sensing