CJ-VOLUME 03 ISSUE 01 JANUARY 2013


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Volume 3 Issue 1, January 2013

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

1-43

Publication History


Original Articles

Determination of Electrochemical Degradation of E102 Dye at Lead Dioxide-Doped Carbon Electrodes Using Some Potentiometric and Spectrophotometric Methods

Nasser Abu Ghalwa, Hazem M. Abu-Shawish and Heba Al Harazeen

Pages 1-6


First Application of Fruit Juice of Citrus limon for Facile and Green Synthesis of Bis- and Tris (Indolyl) Methanes in Water

Rammohan Pal, Shampa Khannobis and Taradas Sarkar

Pages 7-12


Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Metal Complexes of Schiff’s Base Derived from S-benzyldithiocarbazate with 2-hydroxyacetophenone

D. Nasrin, M. Ashraful Alam, M. Nazmul Hossain and M. Nazimuddin

Pages 13-19


A Study on the Shelf Life of Minimally Processed Apple with Edible Coatings

Muhammad Shahnawaz, Asif Wali and Saleem Abbass

Pages 20-22


Synthesis of Chalcone Derivatives of Furo [3, 2-c] pyridine as Potential Antibacterial Agents

N. Sree Lakshmana Rao and V. Mandava Basaveswara Rao

Pages 23-29

Analysis of Extraction Equilibria of NaMnO4 into 1,2-Dichloroethane and Nitrobenzene by Crown Ethers of Which Complexing-Abilities are Inhibited by their Dimer Formation

Yoshihiro Kudo, Yujie Zhao, Kyohei Harashima and Yasuyuki Takeda

Pages 30-36


Determination of Individual Distribution Constants of Alkali Metal Ions into 1,2-Dichloroetha-ne: A Consideration for Difference between their Constants and Those Determined by Ion-transfer Voltammetry

Yoshihiro Kudo and Tomoyo Takeuchi

Pages 37-43



Title

Determination of Electrochemical Degradation of E102 Dye at Lead Dioxide-Doped Carbon Electrodes Using Some Potentiometric and Spectrophotometric Methods

Abstract

The electrochemical degradation of Tartrazine (E102 dye) at lead dioxide-doped carbon C/PbO2 anode was studied varying the parameters such as Cl- concentrati-on, temperature, initial E102 dye concentration, pH of aqueous medium and applied current density. The results obtained were explained in terms of in-situ concomitant generation of hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorite species. After 10 minutes, nearly complete degradation of E102 dye was achieved (95.1 %) using C/PbO2 anodes. The optimum time for COD removal (100 %) was 300 minutes under similar experimental conditions. Kinetic study indicated that the degradation of E102 dye at C/PbO2 anode followed pseudo-first-order reactions, with reaction rate constant, ks, 0.134 s-1. The results were obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotomet-er and the presently designed electrode was coincident.

Keywords

C/PbO2, Electrode, Tartrazine Dye, Electrochemical, Degradation, Carbon Paste Electrode

  

Title

First Application of Fruit Juice of Citrus limon for Facile and Green Synthesis of Bis- and Tris (Indolyl) Methanes in Water

Abstract

Fruit juice of Citrus limon has been utilized for the first time for the facile synthesis of bis- and tris(3-indolyl)methanes in water by the reaction of indoles with aldehydes at room temperature and at 80 ºC. The scope of application of the presented method was demonstrated by using the various substituted aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. Ethers, esters, heteroaromatic rings and long chain aliphatic groups also remained unaffected. The presence of electron donating or electron withdrawing groups in the aromatic ring of the aldehydes did not affect the rate of conversion at the experimental conditions. 2-Methylindoles was found to be more reactive than indole. Many advantages for the use of fruit juice of Citrus limon as a catalyst in these synthesis, such as, low costs, ease of availability, eco-friendly nature, ease of handling, non-toxicity, high reactivity etc. make fruit juice of Citrus limon as a potent catalyst in the synthetic transformati-on. In conclusion, we have developed a simple, eco-friendly and efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of bis-, and tris(3-indolyl)methane derivatives as biologically active compounds via electrophilic substitution reaction of aldehydes with indoles by fruit juice of Citrus limon. The yield was excellent and the protocol was both economic and environmentally friendly.

Keywords

Fruit Juice of Citrus limon, Homogeneous Catalysis, Indoles, Aldehydes, Bis- and Tris(indolyl)Methanes

 

Title

Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Metal Complexes of Schiff’s Base Derived from S-benzyldithiocarbazate with 2-hydroxyacetopheno-ne

Abstract

Structural modification of organic molecule has considerable biological relevance. Further, coordination of a biomolecules to the metal ions significantly alters the effectiveness of the biomolecules. In view of the antimicrobial activity a series of nickel, copper and zinc complexes of tridentate Schiff base derived from the cond-ensation reaction of S-benzyldithiocarba-zate with 2-hydroxyacetophenone have been synthesized and found to be potential antimicrobial agents. An attempt is also made to correlate the biological activities with geometry of the complexes. The complexes have been characterized by molar conductance, magnetic susceptib-ility, IR and electronic spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords

Schiff Base, S-benzyldithiocarbazate, Complexes, Antimicrobial Activity

 

Title

A Study on the Shelf Life of Minimally Processed Apple with Edible Coatings

Abstract

In this experiment the effect of edible coating (apricot gum) was used to extend the shelf life of apple slices. The edible coating was applied at different concentra-tions i.e.  0.5, 1, 2 and 3%. Physicochemical characteristics of edible coa-ted apple slices were analyzed at different time intervals. The analysis was carried out for 12 days with an interval of 4 days. Results showed that the treatments and storage intervals had significant (p<0.05) effect on both moisture and total soluble solids of apple slices. Moisture content was decreased from 78.66% to 73.11% whereas Total Soluble Solids (TSS) were increased from 8 to 10 oBrix during 12 days storage of apple slices.

Keywords

Apple, edible Coatings, Storage, Physicochemical Characteristics

 

Title

Synthesis of Chalcone Derivatives of Furo [3, 2-c] pyridine as Potential Antiba-cterial Agents

Abstract

Encouraged by the biological activities associated with chalcones and furo[3,2-c]pyridine, the present paper describes the synthesis, spectroscopic identification and antibacterial activity of furo[3,2-c]pyridine chalcone derivatives in a few high yielding steps from commercially available 2-Furaldehyde. Claisen Schmidt conden-sation of aldehyde 7 with various acetophenones (R = a-g) was accomplished in presence of sodium hydroxide in methanol at room temperature for 2 hours resulted in the formation of chalcones.  Furo[3,2-c] chalcone derivatives were screened in-vitro at a concentration of 250 μg/mL for antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive pathogenic organisms: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococc-us pyogenes and two Gram-negative organisms: Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was observed that among all the compounds tested, compound 2-methoxy, 4-methoxy and 3,4,5-trimethoxy showed high activity or equipotent against all the tested bacterial strains with reference to the standard drug Ciprofloxacin. Among the other compounds 8a and 8g showed moderate activity, while compounds 8e and 8f showed least activity against all the tested pathogenic organisms.

Keywords

Chalcones, Furo[3,2-c]pyridine, 2-Furanldehyde, Claisen-Schmidt Condensation, Antibacterial Activity

 

Title

Analysis of Extraction Equilibria of NaMnO4 into 1,2-Dichloroethane and Nitro-benzene by Crown Ethers of Which Complexing-Abilities are Inhibited by their Dimer Formation

Abstract

Extraction constants (Kex= [NaLMnO4]o/[Na+][L][MnO4-] and Kex± = [NaL+]o[MnO4-]o/ [Na+][L]o[MnO4-], the subscript “o” = DCE (Dichloroethane) or NB Nitrobenzene) for NaMnO4 with several crown ethers (L) from water into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) and nitrobenzene (NB) and L’s dimmer-formation constants (Kdim = [L2]o/[L]o2) in their diluents “o” were determined at 25 °C; L shows benzo-15-crown-5 ether (B15C5), 15C5, or 18-crown-6 one (18C6). Deviations in Kex or Kex± between the extraction systems analyzed with and without the dimerization were found: the B15C5 system gave the deviation of Kex± and the 15C5 and 18C6 ones did those of Kex. It was obvious that, by the L2 formation in the DCE and NB phases, a relative concentration of a complex ion NaL+ is largely influenced in the former system, while those of an ion-pair complex NaLMnO4 are done in the latter two systems. An inverse on extraction-abilities of L for Na+ from B15C5 < 15C5 < 18C6 to 15C5 < 18C6 £ B15C5 was predicted in the higher [L]o ranges, where [L]o denotes a molar concentration of L in the “o” phase at equilibrium.

Keywords

Dimer-Formation Constants, Crown Ethers, Sodium Permanganate, 1,2-Dichloroethane, Nitrobenzene

  

Title

Determination of Individual Distribution Constants of Alkali Metal Ions into 1,2-Dichloroethane: A Consideration for Difference between their Constants and Those Determined by Ion-transfer Voltammetry

Abstract

Individual distribution constants (KD,M) of alkali metal (M = Li, K-Cs) ions into 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were determined at 298 K by solvent extraction experiments. Together with the previously-determined log KD,Na value, these logarithmic values were compared with those reported previously by electrochemical measurements at a water (w)/DCE interface. Large differences in log KD,M between both the metho-ds were observed. Their causes were discussed considering ion-pair formation constants (KMXDCE) of M+ with a counter anion (X-) present in the DCE phase for the electrochemical measurements; X- was included in supporting electrolyte which was dissolved into the phase. Consequently, it was demonstrated that the KMXDCE values largely influence the determination of log KD,M values, namely formal potentials of ion transfer at the w/DCE interface.

Keywords

Individual Distribution Constants, Ion-transfer Potentials, Alkali Metal Ions, Water/1,2-Dichloroethane Interface