JE-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 02 MARCH 2013


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Volume 2 Issue 2, March 2013

Journal of Environment

ISSN

2049-8373

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

25-59

Publication History


Original Articles

Ichthyo Diversity of Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka and Needs for Their Conservation

J.M. Harris, P. Vinobaba and K.H.M. Ashoka Deepananda

Pages 25-33


Statistical Optimisation of Dilute Acid Pre-Treatment of Corn Stover using Response Surface Methodology

Andrew. N. Amenaghawon, Aminat. A. Balogun, Elvis E. Agbonghae, Samuel. E. Ogbeide and Charity O. Okieimen

Pages 34-40

Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Historical Analysis of Temperature and Rainfall Data

Jayanta Kumar Basak, Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir and Nepal Chandra Dey

Pages 41-46

Computational Model for Biogas Production from Solid Waste

Membere Edward A., Ugbebor John , Okeke Joshua

Pages 47-51

Site-Specific Remediation of Weathered Sediments from Reconquista River (Argentina), Contaminated with Metals and Hydrocarbons

Verónica I. Pierini and Silvia E. Ratto

Pages 52-59


Title

Ichthyo Diversity of Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka and Needs for Their Conservation

Abstract

The present study was to generate an inventory of the fin fish of Batticaloa Lagoon and to assess the impact of water quality on the distribution of fishes. A total of 10,504 fish specimens were collected, belonging to 85 species representing of 45 families.Collected species were classified Estuarine Dependent (ED), Marine Seasonal (MS), Fresh Water species (FW) and Reef Associates (RF) according to their life cycle and capability to cope with salinity fluctuations. Ambassis gymnocephalus was the most abundant species (11.34%), followed by Etroplus suratensis (6.78%), Arius maculatus (6.33%) and Gerres filamentosus (5.61%); Sixty four percent (64.02%) of the collected species correspond to an ED component, followed by MS (19.02%), FW component (13.12%), and very few are RF (3.84%) of total numerical abundance. Various things like partial impoundments and causeway across the lagoon, and seasonal changes influence the the fish abundance and distribution of the lagoon. The information and observation in this study will be very useful in formulating management policies for the future use of Batticaloa Lagoon especially multi-usage of fisheries with other sectors.

Keywords

Estuarine, Fin Fish, Lagoon, Reef Associate and Salinity

Title

Statistical Optimisation of Dilute Acid Pre-Treatment of Corn Stover using Response Surface Methodology

Abstract

Lignocellulosic biomass, if properly hydrolysed, can be an ideal feedstock for fermentative bioethanol production. This study investigated the pre-treatment of Corn Stover (CS) using dilute acid hydrolysis. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed for the optimisation of pre-treatment conditions. A 23 five level Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to develop a statistical model for the optimization of process variables which are acid concentration, pre-treatment time and temperature. The optimal hydrolysis conditions that resulted in the maximum total reducing sugar concentration were acid concentration; 1.68% (w/w), temperature; 152 oC and pre-treatment time; 33 minutes. Under these conditions, the total reducing sugar concentration was obtained to be 21.14 g/L. Validation of the model indicated no difference between predicted and observed values.

Keywords

Corn Stover, Acid Hydrolysis, Lignocellulosic Biomass, Central Composite Design, Optimisation

Title

Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Historical Analysis of Temperature and Rainfall Data

Abstract

The article provides an assessment of climate change and variability based on analysis of historical data of temperature and rainfall recorded at 34 meteorological stations located at seven regions in Bangladesh for the period of 1976-2008. The trend of variation of yearly average maximum temperature has been found to be increasing at a rate of 0.0186 oC per year, whereas the rate was 0.0152 oC per year for yearly average minimum temperature. Analysis of monthly average maximum temperature also showed increasing trend for all months except January and April. The increasing trend was particularly significant for May to September and February. Monthly average minimum temperature data also showed increasing trends for all months except January and November. Analysis of rainfall data showed that for a large majority of stations, the total rainfall showed increasing trend for monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, while decreasing trend was observed for the winter; pre-monsoon rainfall did not show any significant change. These observations are particularly significant in the context of Bangladesh where agriculture is heavily dependent on temperature and rainfall patterns.

Keywords

Bangladesh, Climate Change, Rainfall, Temperature, Meteorological Stations

Title

Computational Model for Biogas Production from Solid Waste

Abstract

This study describes and evaluates a computational model for biogas production as a function of time using urea, cow and horse dung as inoculums. The inoculums were co-digested with Organic Fractions o Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) at room temperature. A series of laboratory experiments using 1500 ml bio-digester and super saturated saline water flask were performed in batch operation mode for a period of 46 days. Four (4) batch digesters were utilized; each contained varying amounts of the inoculums with that of food waste kept constant. Biogas production was measured indirectly by water displacement method. The actual bio-digester potential was determined using the modelled equation to adequately describe the cumulative biogas production from these digesters (A-D). It was observed that the rates of removal of biodegradable fractions of the substrate could be obtained by plotting 1/t (lndyt/dt) against 1/t. The results showed that the first order kinetic constant of -0.0114 and Short Term Anaerobic Biodegradability Index (STABI) of 5.4495 for Digester A, containing 30 g of urea and 10 g of food waste; had the highest yield of biogas with cumulative volume of 389.7 ml and an R2 value of 0.9934. Digester A was followed by Digester C with a STABI of 3.8401 and rate of removal of -0.0273; which was in turn followed by Digester D.

Keywords

EIA, Hydropower, Environment and Physiography

Title

Site-Specific Remediation of Weathered Sediments from Reconquista River (Argentina), Contaminated with Metals and Hydrocarbons

Abstract

The purpose of this work is to apply remedial technology to weathered sediments disposed on geomembrane with a site-specific remediation goal. A column leaching test was carried out; treatments were: compost, calcium carbonate and control. Concentrations found in soil pore water of Al (4830-18000 µg L-1); Ni (240-770 µg L-1) and Cd (120-240 µg L-1) exceeded natural concentrations. For Zn (580-1520 µg L-1), this was true for neutral soils but not for naturally very acidic soils. There were no significant differences among treatments. Mobility of all elements analyzed tended to decrease with calcium carbonate and in the case of Ni, it was enhanced through organic matter addition. High mobility can be explained by low sediment pH (3.63-4.26), caused by sulphate acid, and by the high Al content in pore water, which competes for exchange sites with other cations. The very acidic conditions are the main cause of the inability of amendments to reduce metal mobility. Natural hydrocarbons attenuation was observed compared to previous measurements. In one sample from 80-100 cm depth, total hydrocarbons content in water was 43 µg g-1 dry base. The potential risks of metals entering the food chain, their migration to subsoil and groundwater and dispersion outside the disposal site still persist.

Keywords

Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste, Biodegradability Index, Urea