CJ-VOLUME 03 ISSUE 04 JULY 2013


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Volume 3 Issue 4, July 2013

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

112-121

Publication History


Original Articles

An Easy and Small-Scale Sample Preparation Technique Followed by HPLC-PDA Analysis for Determining Canthaxanthin in Chicken Liver, Fat, and Egg Yolk

Naoto Furusawa

Pages 112-116


Thermochemistry of Heteroatomic Compounds: The Calculation of the Heats of Combustion and the Heats of Formation of Some Alkyl(en) and High Energetic Phosphorus Acids

Vitaly Ovchinnikov

Pages 117-121


Title

An Easy and Small-Scale Sample Preparation Technique Followed by HPLC-PDA Analysis for Determining Canthaxanthin in Chicken Liver, Fat, and Egg Yolk

Abstract

This paper described a fast, simple, and small scale method of sample preparation followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled Photo-Diode Array (PDA) detector for quantification of canthaxanthin in chicken liver and fat, and hen’s egg yolk. The HPLC-PDA was performed on a C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase. Analyte was extracted from the sample using a handheld ultrasonic homogenizer, and purified by MonoSpin®-SI, a centrifugal monolithic silica spin mini-columns, and quantified <15 min. The proposed method obtained average recoveries for the analyte in the range of 93.5-101.0% with relative standard deviations ≤ 2.7%. The quantification limits in chicken liver, fat, and egg yolk were 0.48, 0.47, and 0.5 μg g-1, respectively.

Keywords

Canthaxanthin, Chicken, HPLC, CM Silica Spin Mini-Column, International Harmonized Analytical Method


Title

Kinetics of the Inhibitory Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Vernonia amydgalina on the Corrosion of Aluminium in 1.0 M HCl

Abstract

The known in the literature experimental heats of hydrolysis (DhydrH) of fourth phosphorus acids of the acyclic and cyclic structure allow to calculate their heats of formation (ΔfHo) in the condensed state into accordance with Hess law. It has also been shown previously that the heats of formation of organic and heteroatomic compounds could be easy calculated through the heats of combustion (ΔcHo). The known heats combustion of fourth acids i.e. PhP(O)(OH)2, Ph2P(O)OH, Ph(H)P(O)OH and C10H21P(O)(OH)2, could be used for the construction of equation ΔcHo /kJ.mol-1 = -131.8 – 108.2 (N - g), in which N is a general number bond-forming, valence electrons less the number (g) of lone electron pairs of heteroatoms. , The heats of formation of the above mentioned 4th phosphorus acids of general structure RO2P(O)OH also have been calculated according to Hess law. In the same way i.e. Hess law and equation for combustion P-acids, the heats of combustion and formation in the condensed state of phosphoenolpyruvic, 1,3-diphosphoclycerol and phosphoacetate have been calculated. With the use of molecular mechanics method (MMX-PCMODEL program, VAX modified version 1.1) the heats of water shell formation around the researching “high energetic phosphates”, the aqua formation and hydrolysis heats were calculated too. The application of Gibbs equation DhydrG = DhydrH – TDhydrS allows to calculate at first the hydrolysis entropies for the energetic phosphates. The relatively large positive entropy values point on the preliminary strong water solvation of energetic phosphates before the breaking of P-O bonds in its.

Keywords

Phosphorus Acids, Combustion, Formation, Free Energy, Heat, Entropy