JE-VOLUME 02 ISSUE 04 JULY 2013


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Volume 2 Issue 4, July 2013

Journal of Environment

ISSN

2049-8373

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

90-111

Publication History


Original Articles

Quantitative Relationships between Characteristics of Drainage Basin and Alluvial Fan

Abdollah Seif and Marzieh Mokarram

Pages 90-93

Assessment of Spatial Variation of Surface Water Quality in Lagos, Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Kafeelah A. Yusuf, Surukite O. Oluwole, Ibrahim O. Abdusalam and Abdulrafiu O. Majolagbe

Pages 94-102

Non-Marital Fertility and its Implication to the Child and the Mother in Makueni District, Kenya

Jackson M. Musau, Leonard M. Kisovi & Warkach K. Tonui

Pages 103-111


Title

Quantitative Relationships between Characteristics of Drainage Basin and Alluvial Fan

Abstract

Alluvial fans are transitional sedimentary deposits between mountain and floodplain with a form that resembles a cone segment at the point where a confined stream emerges from a mountainous drainage basin into a zone of reduced stream power and becomes unconfined. Alluvial fans occur in all global climates and form as result of a number of external and internal control variables in space and time. Therefore, analysis of drainage basins and Fans relationship, using morphologic science, is essential. The study of fan morphometric is the measurement of alluvial fan and the use of external form to identify form process associated relationships. In the study morphometric analysis of relationships between characteristics of basins and alluvial fans investigate in the East of Fars province. Morphometric parameters can be used to describe, analyze and compare basins and alluvial fans in different sizes. There is a close correlation between the morphologic features of the basin and the alluvial fans. In this study, five morphometric parameters were analysed between 10 alluvial fans. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used for extracting the characteristics of basins and alluvial fans. The result showed that highest correlation exists between catchment area and Fans area i.e. large catchment area has larger alluvial fans.

Keywords

Alluvial Fan, Drainage Basin, Morphometric Parameters, Longitudinal Profiles

  

Title

Assessment of Spatial Variation of Surface Water Quality in Lagos, Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques

Abstract

Surface water samples were collected from seven selected sites of the Anibire Stream, during four field surveys, July and August 2011. Twenty five water quality parameters namely Temperature, pH, EC, DO, COD, oil and grease, turbidity, TA, SS, TDS, TH, Cl-, PO43-, NO3, SO42-, Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ag, Cr, Ca, Na, K, Mg were analysed. The results showed that the observed pH (8.80) was slightly alkaline and within the natural background level (6.5-9.0). The river was moderately hard with overall ionic dominance pattern of Ca> K> Mg> Na and Cl- > HCO3- > SO42-. The mean concentrations of trace metals followed the order Cr> Fe> Mn> Zn> Ag> Cd. Multivariate statistical techniques were used to identify the spatial variation and pollution sources. The varifactors obtained from factor analysis indicate that the parameters responsible for the water quality variations are mainly trace metal, mineral, inorganic nutrient and organic pollution explaining 81.83% of total variance. Therefore water quality monitoring and control of release of untreated anthropogenic wastes into the stream are strongly needed.

Keywords

Physicochemical Parameters, Trace Metals, Factor Analysis, Water Quality

Title

Non-Marital Fertility and its Implication to the Child and the Mother in Makueni District, Kenya

Abstract

A study of levels of non-marital fertility and its implication to the mothers and their children was conducted in Makueni District which is arid and semi-arid district of Kenya; prone to droughts and feminine that occurs periodically each year. More than 75% of the population  live below poverty line ; majority (>51%) of whom are women who are severely affected due to marginalization in terms of access to ownership of assets and other sources of income thus prone to non-marital sex, pregnancies and childbearing. A rural-peri-urban appraisal survey was adopted targeting women aged between 15-49 years who had non-marital fertility. Data on non-marital fertility characteristics were obtained from a random sample of 120 unmarried women using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussion (FGD’s). Through FGDs majority (75%) of the women admitted that poverty made them look for financial assistance from men as rewards for sexual relationship that resulted in unwanted pregnancies. Consequently levels and implication of non-marital fertility is important in creating awareness to the community of the consequences and policy making process aimed at reduction of non-marital pregnancies especially to mothers who are not able to provide their children with basic needs for their well being.

Keywords

Non-Marital Fertility, Multiple Fertility, Total Fertility Rate, Makueni, Kenya