JB-VOLUME 01 ISSUE 05 SEPTEMBER 2013


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Volume 1 Issue 5, September 2013

Journal of Biology

ISSN

2052-0751

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

100-111

Publication History


Original Articles

Do Visual Cues from the Male Fish and the Mirror Image Elicit the Egg Laying Process of Female Angel Fish; Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae)?

Sandamali Sakunthala Herath, K.S.S. Atapaththu and K.Radampola

Pages 100-105


Antibiotic Resistance of Fecal Bacteria indicators and Pathogens Isolated from Sludge and Wastewaters of Abattoirs in Nairobi, Kenya

Nyamboya Rosemary Atieno, Okemo Paul Owuor and Ombori Omwoyo

Pages 106-111


Title

Do Visual Cues from the Male Fish and the Mirror Image Elicit the Egg Laying Process of Female Angel Fish; Pterophyllum scalare (Lichtenstein) (Pisces; Cichlidae)?

Abstract

Male Fish (MF) and the Mirror Image (MI) of female fish as visual stimulation on the spawning behaviour of female angel fish were studied. The experimental set up was a glass tank having two end compartments and a single middle compartment. Female fish was placed in the central compartment and it’s behaviour was  recorded for 10 minutes after being exposed to visual cues MF, MI, and C, (n = 10 for each). In MI and MF, females spent significantly (P<0.05) longer time near to the visual signal compared to the control. Females were exposed to same treatments for 14 days in the second experiment. Eggs were found in both MF and MI treatment while none of the fish in control group was laid eggs. Although the spawning behaviour was elicited by both MF and the MI, female P. scalari laid eggs even at the absence of male fish when stimulate via its own mirror image.

Keywords

Visual Cue, Female Angel, Spawning Behaviour, Eggs

Title

Antibiotic Resistance of Fecal Bacteria indicators and Pathogens Isolated from Sludge and Wastewaters of Abattoirs in Nairobi, Kenya

Abstract

Bacterial antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem among pathogenic bacteria and has led to increased concern surrounding environmental risks and potential spread of resistance in microbial species. Besides having clinical consequences, resistant bacteria of animal origin may be the source of determinants of resistance for the possible transfer to human strains. The objectives of the present study were to determine the abundance and distribution of antibiotic and multiple drug resistance among faecal bacteria indicators and pathogens found in wastewaters of animal abattoirs in Nairobi, Kenya. Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify faecal streptococci, faecal coliforms, Vibrio and Salmonella species. Sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by agar diffusion method. The mean intermediary sensitive case (8.1% (±5.6)) was significantly lower (p=0.00) compared to the mean sensitive (41.3% (±23.1)) and mean resistant (50.6% (±22.3)) cases at p<0.05. Isolates showed high resistance to lincomycin (90%), ampicillin (80%), and methicillin (72.5%) and low resistance to chloramphenicol (22.5%). The results provided dynamics of resistance development in warm blooded animals usually consumed by humans. Multiple antibiotic resistance index was >0.2 indicating high risk of exposure to the various antibiotics.

Keywords

Antibiotic Resistance, Bacterial Indicators, Pathogens, Sewage and Abattoirs