JB-VOLUME 01 ISSUE 06 NOVEMBER 2013


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Volume 1 Issue 6, November 2013

Journal of Biology

ISSN

2052-0751

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

112-124

Publication History


Original Articles

Impact of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents on the Diversity of Zooplankton in the Ganga River Water at Bijnor (UP) India

Ram K. Negi and Anjan Rajput

Pages 112-117

Antibacterial Activities of Olea europaea Leaf Extract on Some Bacteria Isolated from a Refused Dump Site in Akure, Nigeria

E.O. Dada

Pages 118-124


Title

Impact of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluents on the Diversity of Zooplankton in the Ganga River Water at Bijnor (UP) India

Abstract

Four sampling stations viz. Site-I (Control), Site-II (Discharge point), Site-III (500 m from discharge point) and Site-IV (1000 m from discharge point) were selected for faunal analysis to study effect of pulp and paper mill effluent on the diversity of zooplankton in the Ganga River water at Bijnor (UP) India. 19 genera of zooplankt-on belonging to five major groups, namely, protozoa (4 genera, 21%), rotifera (7 genera, 36.8%), cladocera (5 genera, 26.3%), ostracopoda (1 genera, 5.2%) and copepoda (2 genera, 10.5%) were recorded. At all the selected sites rotifer emerg-ed out as the dominant group except at Site-IV where cladocera was the dominant group. Diversity index of zooplankton was recorded maximum for site-I as 0.319 and minimum for Site-IV as 0.255. Maximum numbers of individuals of zooplankt-on/liter were recorded as 2175 at site-IV, while the number was minimum at Site-III as 525 individuals/ liter. Zooplankton showed positive correlation with DO (0.647**, 0.750**, 0.586**, 0.698**) at all the Sites, with BOD (0.540**, 0.687**, 0.657**) at Sites-I, III and IV, with water temperature (0.607**), free CO2 (0.503**) at Site-II. Negative correlation was observed with air temperature (-0.570**, -0.558**, -0.578**) at Sites-I, II and IV and free CO2 (-0.579**, -0.629**) at Sites-III and IV. From the present investigation it was inferred that minimum diversity of zooplankton was reported from the discharge point and maximum at control site.

Keywords

Effluent, Paper Mill Zooplankton, Bijnor

Title

Antibacterial Activities of Olea europaea Leaf Extract on Some Bacteria Isolated from a Refused Dump Site in Akure, Nigeria

Abstract

Extract of the leaf of Olea europaea was investigated for antibacterial activity against six pathogenic bacteria. The leaf extract was prepared using water and methanol in a cold extraction method. The test bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiel-la pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aerug-inosa and Salmonella enterica) were isolated from a refused dump site in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The extracts were found to be effective against all the test isolates. The methanolic extract, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL, exhibited the highest inhibitory potential on Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli with a zone of inhibition of 13.0 mm and 10.5 mm respectively while the aqueous extract had the highest inhibitory potential on Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli with an inhibitory zone of 5.0 mm. The phytochemical screening of the leaf extract rev-ealed the presence of tannins, oleuropein, flavanoids, phlobatannins and alkaloids in contrast to the absence of cardiac glycosides and saponins. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) obtained with the methanolic leaf extracts of the plant was from 3.125 to 12.5 mg/mL and 12.5 to 25 mg/mL for the aqueous extract. This, therefore, inferred the antibacterial efficacy of the Olea europaea.

Keywords

Antibacterial Activity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Olea europaea, Refused Dump Bacteria