CJ-VOLUME 03 ISSUE 06 NOVEMBER 2013


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Volume 3 Issue 6, November 2013

Chemistry Journal

ISSN

2049-954X

Publication Frequency

6 Issues per year

Pages

139-157

Publication History


Original Articles

Use of Guar Gum in the Drug Delivery Systems

Chetna Gomber, Ganpat Choudhary and Sunita Parihar

Pages 139-142

Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Some Novel Chalcone Derivatives Derived from Apocynin

Nimmala Srinivas Rao, Chepyala Kistareddy, Balram Bhavani and Ram Bhavani

Pages 143-148

Rare Earth Complexes of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Derived Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization and Plant Growth Activity

Ganesh N. Naik, Aishakhanam H. Pathan, Raghavendra P. Bakale, Shashikala G. Ligade and Kalagouda B. Gudasi

Pages 149-157



Title

Use of Guar Gum in the Drug Delivery Systems

Abstract

Guar gum, a non-ionic polysaccharide is used to develop oral-controlled release tablets for water- soluble drugs with constant release rate. Sustained drug delivery has an edge over conventional formulations as it reduces dosing frequency and side effects through reduced fluctuations in blood plasma levels of drug and a time tailored efficacy profile which results from release characteristics of the active ingredient into the blood stream. In the present study, an attempt has been made to compare the viscosity of different grades of guar gum obtained from five different districts of Rajasthan, India. The gum swells rapidly by dissolution and forms a viscous gel. Viscosity plays an important part in controlling the release of drug. The viscosity of guar gum solutions is dependent on time and pH. In dilute solutions the viscosity increases linearly for concentrations up to 0.5%, but, mineral acids and strong alkaline solutions reduces the viscosity. The gradual degradation in the properties of guar was observed while descending towards east of Rajasthan. The pharmaceutical properties of guar gum lack due to fall in viscosity as per other parameters, but, these can be overcome by modifying and derivatization of guar gum. Derivatives of guar gum are more viscous with constant viscosity.

Keywords

Guar Gum, Oral-Controlled Release Tablets, Rajasthan, Viscosity, pH

Title

Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Some Novel Chalcone Derivatives Derived from Apocynin

Abstract

Chalcones are a category of compounds consisting of two aryl rings linked by an α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety. Chalcone derivatives have been receiving great attention due to their significant biological activities, encouraged by the various biological profiles of the chalcone derivatives and in continuation of our search for antimicrobial active molecules, we aimed in the present work to synthesize new chalcone derivatives, 4a-4m, derived from commercially available apocynin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-acetophenone). The reaction of apocynin 1 with 1,2-dibromoethane in presence of potassium carbo-nate  in DMF at 90 oC gave bromide derivative 2. Treatment of bromide derivative 2 with sodium azide in DMF at 100 oC afforded azide derivative 3. Claisen-Schmidt condensation of azide 3 with various benzaldehydes (a-m) in the presence of sodium hydroxide in methanol at room temperature produced new chalcone derivative 4a-4m. The synthesized compounds 4(a-m) were evaluated for antimicrobial and antifungal activity by disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activity was evaluated against A. niger, A. flavus (fungal strains), E. coli and P. aeruginosa (Gram negative bacteria), S. aureus and S. pyogenes (Gram positive bacteria) using Nystatin (for fungi) and ciprofloxacin (for bacteria) as the standard drugs. The preliminary in vitro antifungal and antimicrobial screening of the chalcone derivatives 4a-4m revealed that most of the compounds in the series showed potent activity.

Keywords

3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyacetophenone, Chalcones, Antimicrobial, Antifungal, Synthesis, Gram Positive Bacteria

Title

Rare Earth Complexes of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Derived Schiff Base: Synthesis, Characterization and Plant Growth Activity

Abstract

The paper presents the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary plant growth studies of indole-3-acetic acid derived Schiff base (HL) and its lanthanide [La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Dy(III), Y(III)] complexes. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, spectros-copic (1H, 13C, DEPT, 2D HMQC NMR, FT-IR, Mass and UV-Vis) techniques and thermo gravimetric analysis. The ligand exhibits two sets of signals which correspond to the presence of E and Z isomerism in solution state. The ligand HL, has coordinated via carbonyl oxygen, hydroxyl oxygen and azomethine nitrogen and acted as a monobasic tridentate ligand. Plant growth activity tests were carried on wheat seeds (Triticum durum) at three different concentrations (1x10-5, 1x10-6 and 1x10-7 M) and observed that activity was enhanced on complexation at 1x10-6 M concentration.

Keywords

Indole 3-Acetic Acid, E and Z Isomerism, Variable Temperature NMR,Plant Growth Promoter